Name Variations ALLAN
Father William Henry ALLEN b. 18301 m. 18572 d. aft. 1876
Mother Catherine KILLEEN b. 18333 m. 1857 d. 18654
Brother William H. ALLEN b. 18595 m. d. unknown
Brother Thomas ALLEN6 b. 18597 m. d. aft. 1868
Inmate Mary A. ALLEN8 b. 1860 m. 1882 (see below) d. 19329
Brother James ALLEN b. 186410 m. none - d. 186511
Husband Theophilus Alexander NIQUET b. 185212 m. 188213 d. 192014
Daughter Anna Eliza Louise NIQUET b. 188315 m. d.
Daughter Edith Minnie NIQUET b. 188516 m. 191117 Albert Stanley YATES d.
Son Edwin Percival NIQUET b. 189018 m. (1) 192719 Amy Victoria FORBY d. 197320
Son John Alfred aka Alf.21 NIQUET b. 189222 m. Mary Josephine WHALAN d. 198123
Son Alexander Frederick NIQUET b. 189524 m. (1) 192225 (2) 194326 (1) Mary STOKAN (2) Gladys Louise DAVIE d. 196727
Daughter Marie NIQUET b. 189728 m. none - d. 189729
Daughter Marjory Jean NIQUET b. 189830 m. d.
Daughter unidentified NIQUET b.c. 1898 m. bef. 1932 Thomas MANNING d. aft. 1932
Relationship Name Age Height Hair Eyes Complexion Build Distinguishing features
Father William31 35 5' 10½" sandy light blue sandy [?] stout hairy breast; mark of a boil left side of belly; a mark of cut over left eyebrow
Brother William32 19 5' 3½" sandy blue medium ruddy freckles all over body; mole [?] [?]

Mary’s admission to 'an industrial school'33 was widely reported as her situation was considered unusual for so young a child.

About three or four years ago [her] father was tried and convicted of felony at the Wagga Wagga Court and sentenced to seven years' hard labour on the roads. Her mother is dead, and her brother was sent about four or five months since to the reformatory ship Vernon. Mr Thomas Barber, of North Yass – much to his credit – took the child into his domestic service, but he does not appear to have succeeded in eradicating those seeds of wilfulness and vice that were early implanted in her. … Although so young she smokes tobacco whenever she can get it, but one of the worst habits she has formed is that of lying.

Mary's arrest was recorded in the Police Gazette and although newspaper articles correctly stated that Mary was to be sent to Newcastle, the Police Gazette34 reported that she was to go to the Parramatta Industrial School – an institution which did not then exist, and which may have been a reference to one of the orphan schools. Although it wasn't reported at the time, after her father's imprisonment and before her arrest, an arrangement had been made by her uncle and guardian that Mary be employed as a domestic servant with Thomas BARBER35 of North Yass. Mary soon left BARBER's service and eventually appeared at the Yass Police Court36 charged with having no fixed place of abode. Mary's brother, Thomas, had been one of the first admissions to the Vernon and was admitted from Yass on 9 April 1868. He was recorded in the admission book and on the index37 as a nine-year-old but his details in the Vernon Entrance Book only identify a copy of the newspaper article about Mary. While this proved the connection between the siblings is provided no details for their family. It is unclear whether the boy admitted to the Vernon was the boy registered as William H. ALLEN who was known in the family by the name of Thomas, or an unregistered brother named Thomas.

Mary was admitted to Newcastle on 25 September 1868 and was recorded as Mary ALLAN in the Entrance Book.38 It was noted that she was a seven-year-old Catholic and was able to read the alphabet and write on slate. She remained in Newcastle until May 1871, when she transferred with the school to Biloela. LUCAS recorded that she was 'In the Institution' in his April 1872 list.39

On 28 May 1872, Mary was discharged into the care of her uncle40 who had applied for her release. LUCAS reported that Mary was 'about eleven years of age … and is a well-conducted girl.' The uncle’s surname was poorly written in the Entrance Book but the CSIL, in the letter requesting Mary's return, clarified that his name was Michael KILLEEN.41

It is almost entirely certain but cannot be proven using any record yet located, that Mary married Theophilus NIQUET in Wentworth, NSW, in 1882. Descendants of this family are very reticent about accepting this girl as their ancestor based on the fact that their ancestor did not have the middle name Ann.42 The evidence provided in this detailed explanation and in this biography suggests that Mary was unaware that she had a middle name. She was separated from her brothers; her mother was dead and her father was in gaol. It is likely that she never met any of her immediate family again although there is considerable evidence that she retained contact with her mothers extended family. What is believed to be Mary's life is outlined below.

An enquiry regarding Mary ALLEN was made in May 1872 by her mother's brother Michael KILLEEN. KILLEEN in his letter of May 1872, requested her release. He stated:43

I am the uncle of Mary ALLEN of whom I had charge since her father (William ALLEN) was sentenced to five years imprisonment to Darlinghurst Gaol in 1866.44 In September 1868 I left the Yass district and lived at Queanbeyan leaving my little niece in a respectable family at Yass until my return (as I thought) but during my absence she left that family, was arrested by the police … I have now 80 acres of selected land I am married since she left my charge and I am able and willing to support and educate her if your Honor favours me with allowing her to be returned to me without delay. I also beg to add that I had her father's permission to take charge of her and also my lamented sister requesting me to care her daughter previous to her death.

After this request and before Mary's release to KILLEEN a police assessment of his character and situation was made. The police reported that Michael KILLEEN 'bears a good character in the district and that he is well able to support his niece. Nothing can be ascertained respecting the whereabouts of the girl’s father.'45 As Michael KALEEN, it is believed to have been the man who appeared in Parkes Court in 1876 charged with beating an unnamed Biloela apprentice.46 This apprentice was handed over to the Rev. Father DAVERIN to have her apprenticeship transferred. It is believed but unconfirmed that this 'unnamed apprentice' was Mary. No trace of the location of the new apprenticeship arranged by DAVERIN after this court appearance can been identified.

Mary returned to her extended family in the Yass locality and there is little doubt that her apprenticeship was then transferred to another person probably located within the diocese of the local priest, DAVARIN, near Parkes, it is possible, but based only on supposition and conjecture, that Mary was the Mary ALLEN who married Theophilus Alexander NIQUET in Wentworth in 1882. It is believed that the marriage certificate of Theophilus NIQUET and Mary did not record her parents or her place of birth as these have remained unidentified by her descendants.47 Some online trees now identify the birth location of Mary NIQUET as Scotland but no references for this evidence are included. After their marriage Theophilus and Mary moved to South Australia where Mary remained until her death.

Theophilus NIQUET's baptism was recorded in the NSW BDM Index on 2 January 1852,48 and was also recorded on the Queensland BDM Index.49 His parents were John Peter NIQUET and Ann Eliza NOBLE.50 Theophilus was a colourful character who assumed different aliases and was not always on the right side of the law. Instances have been found where he was recorded just by his surname when there is little doubt that Theophilus was the man involved.51 He went by the names Alfred T. NEWMAN,52 Alexander T. NEQUET53 and Theodore NIQUET.54 As Theodore NIQUET he was arrested in Adelaide in 1891 but was released after there was no response from the NSW police.55 He may also possibly have gone by the name Frederick NIQUET in Queensland during the 1870s. Theophilus abandoned Mary and her children in around 1898. This abandonment may have been when Theophilus had again been arrested for passing valueless cheques in February 1898.56 His description was included as Mary sought to locate him for support.

Information is requested of Theophilus Alexander Niquet, a housepainter, a native of New South Wales, of German parentage, who left his home at Angaston for Adelaide on October 7th last, and was last heard of at Port Pirie in the middle of the following month, where he was employed by a contractor named Smeardon; age 47 years, height 5ft. 9in., fair complexion, light-brown hair mixed with grey, and when last seen moustache and sideboards, light-blue eyes, medium nose, and is a good penman. He is identical with Theodore Niquet (for description see Police Gazette, 1898, page 170, "Prisoners Discharged").

As Alexander T. NIQUET he was reported at the time of his father's death in March 1903 to be in the USA.

Three sons and six daughters survive the late Pastor Niquet. The sons are Messrs, C. W. Niquet, of Middle Park, Melbourne ; Alexander T. Niquet, of the United States of America; and P. H. Niquet, of Mount Gambier. The daughters are Mrs. S. Olden, of Ballarat ; Mrs. A. E. Roberts, of Yorke's Peninsula; Mrs. M. J. Reusch, of Tanunda; Mrs E. W. Wishart, of Angaston; Mrs. Braun, wife of the Rev. Pastor Braun, of Hahndorf; and Mrs F. W. Matschoss, of Mount Gambier.57

In view of the variety of aliases adopted by Theophilus, the identity of the man, variously called Samuel or John Peter58 or Samuel John P. NIQUET,59 identified as a pensioner, and charged with the murder of Edward LOMAX near Sapphiretown, Queensland, in October 1910,60 might be yet another alias used by Theophilus as no trace of Theophilus has been confirmed after 1898 when his father died and he was reported to be in the USA. Samuel NIQUET was himself assaulted a little over a year later while he was waiting for his trial for LOMAX's murder. He had been sleeping in his tent near the police station at Sapphiretown, Queensland when he was attacked and he declared that although he didn't see his attacker. the person who did it must have been LOMAX's murderer. It was argued by some that his injuries were self-inflicted. Perhaps due to these injuries when he went to trial, the jury disagreed about his guilt in the murder so there was a nolle prosecqui and he was discharged.61 This man died in Queensland in 192062 as John Peter Samuel NIQUET. The Queensland BDM indicated that he was 79 years old, had been born in Queensland and was the son of Peter and Sophia NIQUET. This death has tentatively been attributed to Theophilus as it is believed that there was an element of truth in the registration details as Sophia NIQUET was his sister.63

There are very compelling reasons, but not proof, to believe that Mary NIQUET may be the same person as the Mary ALLEN who had been admitted to Newcastle. Making discoveries about both Mary NIQUET and Mary ALLEN are extremely difficult, which in itself is an indication that they are likely to be the same person.

  1. It is not possible to identify Mary ALLEN's family using anything but the original, unpublished records in the CSIL to identify the correct birth registration. Further, it is considered almost certain that due to her youth at the time of her arrest she genuinely did not know her parent’s names, far less her own officially registered name, as she had been known as 'Mary' for an extended period of time. Mary NIQUET probably did not state her parents when she married but it is unknown whether this was an omission from the registration and that they do appear in the church record or whether they were genuinely unknown.
  2. The Newcastle admission was definitely traced to the Yass area by 1872 and by 1876 was almost certainly further tracked to the Parkes police district. These locations are each considerable distances from Wentworth, the physical size of the DAVARIN's parish in this sparsely populated area; the location of the residences of the participants in Mary NIQUET's marriage and the exact location of Mary ALLEN's final apprenticeship are unknown. These police and parish districts at this time were enormous so it is conceivable that actual locations were of less concern to the inhabitants than the physical difficulty of travelling in the area. It is unknown how Theophilus and Mary met but based on the location of their marriage, it was likely to have occurred when Theophilus was in NSW rather than when, or if, Mary was in South Australia.
  3. In the Entrance Book the admission details for the Newcastle girl identified no middle name. This girl was five when her mother died and when her father was arrested. While her birth was registered with the middle name 'Ann', the people who had given her this name were no longer around and it must be considered that she rarely, if ever, was referred to by those who then cared for her with any middle name. Mary NIQUET was identified on the enlistment papers of her son, John Alfred NIQUET, with the middle initial 'J'. This is a typed and not written reference within the papers themselves so it is unambiguous,64 clearly indicating that Mary NIQUET used a middle name on some occasions. While this does indicate a clear discrepancy, there is no other indication yet found that Mary NIQUET used a middle name at any other time and it would have been easy to acquire one.
  4. It is considered significant and is very interesting to note, that at the time of Mary's death in 1932, two of her sons, John aka Jack NIQUET and Edwin Percival NIQUET, were residents of NSW. John65 and Edwin66 lived at Finger Post, south of Wellington, NSW, but north of Orange. A large number of the KILLEEN family, including Michael, the Newcastle admission's uncle, also lived in Orange. This may of course be nothing but coincidence and Jack and Edwin may have had no familial reason at all for settling near Orange. John had returned to South Australia by 1934, although members of Edwin's family remained in the Wellington area.67 To date no connection between the NIQUET and KILLEEN families has been found recorded in any newspapers but it is likely that there was some interaction between the families.

Mary NIQUET died at the age of 71 on 16 September 1932,68 at the Adelaide Hospital. Her death registration identified no parents but her children, Mrs Edith YATES of Ethelton, Mr J. NIQUET of NSW, Mr Alf. NIQUET of Mount Bold, Fred NIQUET (deceased) of Victoria and Mrs Tom MANNING of Semaphore, were named in Family Notices.69 Mary was buried in the Cheltenham Cemetery, South Australia. Her age at the time of her death calculated to 1861 and this is an extremely good match for a birth in December 1860, the known birth year of the Newcastle admission.

Based on Mary's marriage location; the marriage location of her parents; her extreme youth at the time of her arrest; the potential lack of knowledge about her family and the 1932 location of her son near the KILLEEN family in Orange, the NIQUET marriage has been tentatively attributed to the Newcastle admission. Other marriages have been investigated and eliminated from the search for Mary Allen but to date nothing more, other than what has been recorded above, has been found to ascertain the fate of Mary ALLEN after she left the care of her uncle, Michael KILLEEN.


The Entrance Book identified that Mary's father was Thomas and, because she was dead, Mary's mother's name was not recorded. Subsequent correspondence proved that this original entry in the register was in error. It may be that this was not a deliberate falsehood as Mary was quite young at the time of her arrest, and her father had been missing for two years before this time. Other than these considerations there is no clear explanation as to why the Entrance Book is in error. Mary's mother's death, the identification of her father, William ALLEN, and William's trial details were confirmed in the letters between Mary’s uncle, Michael KILLEEN, the Colonial Secretary and George LUCAS outlined above.

Michael KILLEEN had married Johanna WALSH in Queanbeyan in 1870 and the couple had returned to Yass sometime after this date. It is further believed that the KILLEEN family moved from Yass to the Orange area shortly after the time of Mary's release to them. Michael KILLEEN died in Orange on 2 February 1900,70 at the age of 63½ years. His children, Frank, Michael, Mary, Bridget, Annie and Margaret, were identified in a remembrance notice in February the following year.71

This proven link to the KILLEEN family permitted a search of the NSW BDM Index to identify the ALLEN family. When Michael KILLEEN died in 1900,72 his father was identified as Patrick. A search on the NSW BDM Index for a woman with the surname ALLEN or ALLAN, whose father was Patrick and who died before Mary Ann’s arrest, disclosed the 1865 death of Catherine ALLEN in Wagga Wagga, relatively close to Yass. Births to Catherine and William ALLEN documented the 1860 birth of a daughter in Liverpool named Mary Ann.73 This registration recorded that the maiden name of Mary's mother was KILLEEN, therefore confirming the relationship to the Newcastle admission. Mary Ann ALLEN had been born on 26 December 1860, at the Cabramatta Saw Mills in Liverpool. Her parents were William Henry ALLEN and Catherine KILLEEN who had married in Adelaide, South Australia, in 1857. The presence of two older brothers was documented on the record but they were unnamed. William ALLEN had been born in Biddeford, Devonshire, and Catherine KILLEEN in Mallock, Ireland. William Henry ALLAN and Catherine KLEEN [sic] married in St Patrick's, Adelaide, South Australia, on 7 July 1857. The registration indicated that William was the 27-year-old son of Thomas ALLEN and Catherine was the 24-year-old daughter of Patrick KILLEEN.74

The Police Gazette identified the William ALLEN who was sentenced at the Wagga Wagga Quarter Sessions on 21 February 1866. He was sent to Darlinghurst Gaol to spend five years on the roads for cattle stealing. NSW Criminal Court records from 21 February 1866, recorded that William had been born in Ireland. He was 'strong, robust and in good health' and he could 'read, write and work arithmetic well'.75 The two cattle theft incidents were further outlined in the Police Gazette.76 An account of the circumstances of the thefts appeared in the Wagga Wagga Express and Murrumbidgee Advertiser on 10 February 1866.77 Some of William's sentence was remitted and he was released from Darlinghurst on 18 May 1870.78 The accompanying description showed that the William ALLEN, tried at Wagga Wagga on 21 February 1866, had been born in Devonshire, England in 1831. This place of birth differs from what was outlined in the Criminal Court Records but it is considered that gaol reports were likely to be more accurate although this is uncertain. William had arrived in 1854 aboard the Gypsy Queen which was not a convict transport. No immigration record in NSW or Victoria for the Gypsy Queen has been found but the ship may have been a South Australian arrival as this was where William and Catherine were married. No further confirmation of William has been found after his release from gaol.

Mary's older brother William ALLEN may have been the man who was admitted to Parramatta Gaol in about August 1876. This man had been born 'near South Creek' in about 1857,79 a location that is close to the area where Mary had been born. His description is included above but whether this is Mary's brother has not yet been confirmed.

Updated May 2018

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