Biloela on Cockatoo Island, Sydney Harbour was the second of the locations of the Industrial Schools for Girls. The location of the school was in the premises of the men's prison, formerly known as Cockatoo Island, that had been renamed, presumably to make it appear a more palatable place for keeping young girls.

BIL-OE-LA (pronounced Billowy la), the name of the new establishment provided by the Government for the girls recently removed from Newcastle, has excited some curiosity in regard to its derivation. It is an aboriginal word, meaning "cockatoo," as will be found by reference to the Hon. W. Ridley's book on Kamilaroi. The name Biloela is not given to the whole of the island, but only to the Industrial School premises. The name of the island has already been changed once. Some years ago it was called Banks' Island, in honour of Sir Joseph Banks. Since the removal of the girls to their new school – where they are entirely removed from encouragement by the plaudits of inconsiderate and vicious persons – it is said that there has been more effective discipline.1

The area of the school was defined in the Government Gazette on 26 May 1871, as

… the Western portion of the Island within the following boundaries: – Commencing on the southern margin of the Island, at about 57 feet easterly from the eastern Lime-kiln – and bounded thence on the east by a line bearing about north 10½ degrees east about 278 feet to the southern corner of the enclosure, northerly of the covered tank ; thence by the south-western boundary-wall of that enclosure, north-westerly about 118 feet ; thence by a line south-westerly at right angles to that boundary about 25 feet ; and thence by a line bearing about north 32 degrees west 240 feet to the northern margin of the Island, and on the north-west, on the west and on the south, by the waters of Port Jackson, south-westerly, southerly and easterly to the point of commencement.2


Biloela (1876)
Image courtesy of Trove - Digitalized Newspapers
The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912)3

… [The] view of Biloela from the mainland near Birchgrove … shows the south-eastern side of the island, where are situated the Fitzroy Dock Works. The place for years bore the name of Cockatoo Island, but when the Crown prisoners were removed from it, and the establishment was made use of as a female reformatory and industrial school, it received the more euphonious aboriginal designation, "Biloela." In the foreground of the picture is part of Birchgrove. In the background beyond Biloela appear the highlands at the entrance to Lane Cove. To the left are the western extremity of Spectacle Island (now used as a gunpowder depot) and Pulpit Point. Biloela Island is about a quarter of a mile in length. The magnificent dock works, constructed in the solid rock, were effected almost exclusively by the use of prison labour. The dock is 400 feet long with 20 feet depth of water over the sill. The Galatea, of over 3600 tons burden, was taken in without the slightest difficulty.4

The planning to transfer the girls was almost certainly finalised between 18 April 1871, when CLARKE handed over the school to LUCAS, and 26 May when this new superintendency was proclaimed by the Governor, Somerset Richard, Earl of Belmore. The 26th was the day when the younger girls were actually transferred from Newcastle to Sydney aboard the Morpeth.5 The elder 'more refractory' girls left Newcastle on the Government steamer, Thetis, the following day.6 Girls who were tried in Sydney7 during May or country NSW8 during late April, were retained in Sydney and never reached the Newcastle site.9

The decision to remove the girls from Newcastle was made partly in response to the proximity of the school to residences, the ease of escape and the wild behaviour of the girls on the easily observable site. The major reason for Newcastle's closure was unstated but was almost certainly economic.10 By placing the girls on the island in the old Biloela gaol buildings, it was hoped that these problems would be reduced or eliminated. This was true only in regard to the cost savings of locating the school near Sydney and to the isolation of the site. That Cockatoo Island was an unwise location for the welfare of the girls was apparent to members of the media and possibly many others at the time and criticism of the government's wisdom in making this decision began shortly after the relocation.

'From the Sydney Punch'
In Sydney Harbor thar's an isle,
A place that's dull and drear,
With nary tree upon its sile –
It looks pertickler queer ;
It ain't at all the sort of isle
Whar lovers bill and coo –
Its character is raly vile –
Folks call it " Cockatoo."
As Cockatoo its known to Fame –
Known also to each Peeler,
But lately they hev changed its name
An' called it " Biloela."
It's now the home of rowdy gals –
A naughty sister-hood –
Who, 'prison'd on thet rocky isle,
Air larnin' to be good !
But 'taint no use – they'll never larn –
Those gals air reg'lar squalers,
An' horrid yarns the folks du tell
About them Biloelas.
They scream, and roar, and tear their clothes
An cuss an' swear a few –
Why Biloela's ten times wuss
Than was old Cockatoo!
On that thar isle thar is a dock,
Whar ships of war repair ;
Hard by them virgins under lock
The dry dock still is there !
The wisdom of some public men,
In that is clearly shown ;
Them chaps should have their praises cut
In Biloela stone! …12

The site was badly chosen as it had difficult access and a shortage of fresh water. Visiting clergy who came often and with ease to Newcastle were required to travel to the island and while sisters from the House of the Good Shepherd ministered religious education to the Catholic girls, the teacher, Margaret KELLY became responsible for the Protestants. Attacks were made on the buildings by visiting sailors arriving at the nearby Fitzroy Dock. Riots amongst the inmates still occurred and successful escapes were made from the island. Frequently small boats and dingys containing men cruised around the island. Any girls who were observed to be conversing with these men were locked in one of the dormitories. The time for their confinement varied but 'for the remainder of the day' was one such imprisonment.13 One instance of the male offenders being referred to court was reported to the Colonial Secretary by LUCAS on 18 October 1871,14 but this court case has not yet been found. The isolated nature of the school from public scrutiny was not good for the inmates.

Biloela Industrial School Admissions

Because the first admissions to Biloela are located in the missing pages of the Entrance Book,15 girls who were identified as having been admitted to Cockatoo Island during this period have been recorded below. Many trial locations are unidentified and it has not always been possible to identify an exact admission date but an attempt has been made to place the admissions in an approximate chronological order. Their names have been sourced from LUCAS's April 1872 list16 and supplemented by mentions in the superintendent's weekly reports from the CSIL. Each weekly report may only name one girl. It was possible to match young admissions and later arrivals by cross-referencing their names in the Child Welfare Index.17 If only a discharge record from the Biloela Discharge Register is identified on this index then that inmate had to have been recorded in the Entrance Book during the period when the pages were missing. Unfortunately, any older inmate admitted before or during 1875 may have been discharged before the Discharge Register was commenced. Individual letters in the CSIL index that specified Biloela as a location were also identified.18 The Police Gazettes and Trove also reported some court locations or admissions.

The list below contains the names of the missing 157 Biloela admissions. Variations in spelling and handwriting have resulted in at least two duplications that are still being identified. Of these admissions seven were those of young boys under the age of 8 years who were eventually transferred from Biloela – usually onto the nearby Vernon. Names of boys have been recorded in bold to enable them to be identified easily on the list. Of the final eleven admissions whose family details appear on the first page after the missing section of the Entrance Book, almost all have been identified and matched to their family details. The list is amended as further details are uncovered.

It is not the intention to investigate the lives or circumstances of the Biloela inmates unless they were the sisters of girls who were admitted to Newcastle. If you believe that you are connected to any of these girls or would like to further investigate their lives, please contact me and it can be arranged for you to contribute what you can uncover of their story in their own biography on this site.

Tried Location Given Surname, variation or alias Born Died Remarks
188 April 187119 Hay Catherine Amy aka Catherine Emma20 aka Emma21 MULLENS 186522 Father: William; Mother: Catherine23
189 9 May 1871 Sydney Elizabeth BADCOCK aka KING c.1856 aft.1871 Mother: Mary HEARSEY or THURSEY24
190 11 May 187125 readmitted 21 January 187326 Sydney Mary Ann WILLIAMS (3) 1853 aft. 1873 Father: Henry; Mother: Mary; Aunt: Mrs LODGE27
191 13 June 187128 Sydney Caroline BLENMAN 185429 193730 Father: Thomas BLENMAN; Mother: Margaret MANSFIELD
192 6 July 187131 Newcastle Alice or Amy aka Lily Alice ZANONI aka HORROCKS 186832 195233 Father: Vincent ZANONI; Mother: Eleanor TOTTEN; Brother: Albert Amado to the Vernon
193 6 July 187134 Newcastle Ellena aka Lena Ellen ZANONI aka HORROCKS 186635 195236 Father: Vincent ZANONI; Mother: Eleanor TOTTEN; Brother: Albert Amado to the Vernon
194 14 August 187137 Sydney Sarah BURKE or BOURKE c.1854 aft. 1888
195 22 November 187138 Sydney Elizabeth DONOHOE or DONOHUE 185639
196 28 November 187140 Sydney Elizabeth or Eliza BURNS41 aka BROWN
197 12 January 187242 Grenfell43 Jane DAVIS 1858 Mother: Mary Ann DAVIS; Brother-in-law: Mr ALLSOP44
198 25 January 187245 Sydney Elizabeth LEACH
199 6 February 1872; readmitted March 1875 Gosford Eliza MILES46 or MYLES c.185847 Father alive 1875; Father: William; Mother: Margaret
200 20 February 187248 Sydney Janet BOYD49 185950 Father: John; Mother: Janet; parents alive 1872
201 28 February 1872 Annie DOOLEY or DARLEY51
202 2 March 187252 Sydney Theresa WAGONER 1857
203 4 March 1872 Newcastle53 Clare or Clara ANDREWS or ANDREW c.186154 Father: John; Mother: Ellen
204 4 March 187255 Sydney Annie BUCKLEY
205 2 March 187256 Sydney Elizabeth SHARKEY57 1857
206 16 March 1872 Newcastle58 Mary HORNBACK 186959 Location of father unknown: mother (a coloured woman)60 in gaol
207 2 April 187261 Sydney Rosanna TOUT or TOUTE 1859 transferred from the Reformatory
c.20862 13 March 187263 Cooma Ann RODHAM or RODDAM 185864 father alive 1872
c.209 c. May 1872 Margaret CHATTEY65
c.210 27 June 187266 Young67 Bessie Maud68 DANGAR69 185870 Father: James HEYWARD; Mother: Mary Eliza DANGAR; Step-father: Thomas WEST;71 transferred from the Reformatory
c.211 6 July 1872 Albury72 Marian SMITH73
c.212 6 August 1872 Tamworth74 Ellen LEWIS c. 186275 Sister: Kate
c.213 6 August 1872 Tamworth76 Kate LEWIS Sister: Ellen
c.214 15 August 187277 Maitland Elizabeth EDDINGTON 1856 Sister: Emma;78 Married sister79
c.215 22 August 187280 Sydney Louisa WINTER aka WILSON 1859 1890 First admission was to Newcastle Reformatory
c.216 29 August 1872 Araluen Jane HAND 185681 discharged to the Newcastle Asylum, November 187282
c.217 c. September 1872 Cargo83 Leah EMANUEL 186784 Mother: Kate (alive 1872)
c.218 17 October 187285 Sydney Sarah86 LITTLEWOOD87 1859 Mother: Johanna aka Hannah LITTLEWOOD88
c.219 15 November 187289 Mudgee Lizzie aka Elizabeth THOMASLIN 1858 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah90
c.220 15 November 187291 Mudgee Lucy THOMASLIN 1861 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah92
c.221 15 November 187293 Mudgee Margaret THOMASLIN94 1865 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah95
c.222 15 November 187296 Mudgee Joseph THOMASLIN (M) 1869 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah;97 Sisters: Margaret, Lizzy and Lucy; transferred to Sydney Benevolent Asylum 15 November 1872, then to Randwick Asylum 17 January 1876.
c.223 17 November 1872 Dubbo Louisa surname unknown98 c. 186899
c.224 23 November 1872100 Sydney Sarah Ann BROWN 1858101 parents alive 1872
c.225 7 December 1872102 Wagga Wagga Eliza COOKE or COOK or CORK103 1862104
c.226 7 December 1872105 Wagga Wagga Sarah OSBORNE 1860 1874106 Mother: possibly Sarah107 or Father: William and Mother: Eliza J. (born Gundagai)
c.227 9 December 1872 Gulgong108 Agnes LEWIS109 1869110 Father: Samuel; Mother: Agnes; Sister: Elizabeth
c.228 9 December 1872111 Gulgong Elizabeth LEWIS112 1865113 Father: Samuel; Mother: Agnes; Sister: Agnes
c.229 c. 2 December 1872114 Narrabri115 Charlotte ANGUS 1858116 discharged to the Benevolent Asylum, 30 May 1873117
c.230 c. January 1873118 Florence GRAY
c.231 c. January 1873119 Mary Jane THORNTON120 1862 Mother: Margaret;121 alive 1877122
c.232 bef. February 1873123 Mary Jane CARRUTHERS
c.233 3 February 1873124 Caroline ATTWELL125 1860126 father: Robert; mother: Mary; sister: Mary127
c.234 3 February 1873128 Gulgong Robert or Henry GARDEM aka GARDENER129 1868130 1940131 Father: Charles aka Rowley (in gaol); Mother: Mary J. McNAMARA (dead);132 Brother: Stephen aka Rowley; transferred to the Vernon November 1874
c.235 3 February 1873 Gulgong Stephen or Rowley GARDNER or GARDEM or GARDEN or GARDENER133 1870134 1950135 Father: Charles aka Rowley (in gaol); Mother: Mary Jane McNAMARA (dead); Brother: Henry aka Robert; transferred to the Vernon 3 February 1877; absconded136
c.236 c. February 1873 Mary Ann LESLIE 1865137 Father: James; Mother: Jane
c.237138 by March 1873139 Ann KING140
c.238141 by March 1873142 Rebecca YOUNG143
c.239 1 March 1873144 Muswellbrook Rebecca145 NEWMAN b. 1869146 Father: William NEWMAN; Mother: Mary
c.240 c. March 1873147 Ellen RICE likely sister: Mrs Jane// DONOVAN148
c.241 c. March 1873;149 readmitted May 1880150 Sarah RICE151 1864152 aft. 1882 likely sister: //Mrs Jane// DONOVAN153
c.242 c. March 1873154 Mary MARCH
c.243 18 March 1873155 Sydney Amelia HASSON or HASSAN or HASSOM Father: John; Mother: Emma; Sisters: Sarah, Mary Ann and Emma156
c.244 21 March 1873157 Sydney Sarah Ann YOUNG LING158 1858159 Father: unknown Chinaman160 Mother: Eliza DAVIS; Aunt: Jane DAVIS
c.245 29 March 1873161 Sydney Ellen or Eliza162 TROWELL or TIOWELL or TIMELL163 1861 parents dead by 1873 but grandmother alive
c.246 18 April 1873164 Sydney Eliza165 or Elizabeth166 ROBERTS 1858 Father dead by 1873; Mother: Mary ROBERTS
c.247 3 May 1873167 Wagga Wagga Ellen TOMLINSON b. 1867168 Father: John; Mother: Honorah Ann aka Ann;169 Brother: Walter
c.248 3 May 1873170 Wagga Wagga Walter171 TOMLINSON b. 1872172 Father: John; Mother: Honorah Ann aka Ann;173 Sister: Ellen; Transferred to the //Vernon April 1880 but no admission to the Vernon has been located. Transferred to the State Children's Relief Department in 1888.174
c.249 c. 13 May 1873175 returned from apprenticeship 29 December 1876176 Newcastle Mary JENNINGS 1861177 mother: Mary JENNINGS;178 sister: Sarah admitted to Biloela in 1880
c.250 24 June 1873179 Sydney Ellen SCOURCE 1859180
c.251 14 July 1873181 Parramatta Abigail YOUNG c.1860182
c.252 25 July 1873183 Sydney Fanny BROOKBACK184 aka BROOKBANK or BROOKLAND185 aka TAYLOR 1862186 Mother: Fanny MARSHALL
c.253 30 July 1873187 Goulburn Emma MUNN188 or MANN189 alias SIMMONS or KIMBERLEY190 1860191 Father: George;192 Mother: Ellen; Sister alive193
c.254 31 July 1873194 discharged September 1874195 Sydney Ann aka Annie196 SMITH 1858 Qld Father alive 1873;197 Mother dead by 1873; Aunt: Ella LIGHT198
c.255 14 August 1873199 Sydney Ellen LEWIS 1859 Mother: Sarah LEWIS; unknown brother200
c.256 16 August 1873201 Sydney Charlotte CALF 1860 1940 Sister: Eliza CALF admitted to Newcastle
c.257 23 August 1873;202 discharged September 1874;203 readmitted May 1875204 Gulgong Emma SMITHSON 1861
c.258 23 August 1873205 Gulgong Eliza aka Ellen GREER
c.259 2 September 1873206 Sydney Mary Ann WILSON c.1860207 Father gone for two years; Mother: alive 1873
c.260 10 September 1873208 Sydney Charlotte209 aka Ellen210 JENKINS211 1858 Mother: Elizabeth FREER
c.261 bef. 14 September212 1873213 Emma GREY
c.262 15 September 1873214 Sydney Kate McINERNEY215 or McQUERNEY or McENEMY216 1860 Parents dead by 1873
c.263 25 September 1873217 Sydney Mary Ann MARSHALL218 1860 Father: John;219 Mother: alive 1873; Sister: Hannah; Brother: Henry James MARSHALL220
c.264 29 September 1873221 Sydney Kate SHEEHAN222 or SKAHIN223 or SKALEND224 or SKEEHAN225 1858 Father dead by 1873; Mother alive 1873; Grandmother: Mrs MAHONEY
c.265 8 October 1873;226 readmitted 13 September 1875227 West Maitland228 Agnes Amelia TAYLOR229 1863230
c.266 27 October 1873231 Jerilderie Catherine Ann JONES discharged March 1876232
c.267 20 November 1873233 Sydney Mary Ann NAUGHTON234 1859 Grandmother: Ellen NAUGHTON
c.268 27 November 1873235 Sydney Margaret BOYLE 1859
c.269 24 December 1873236 Sydney Sarah WATT
c.270 c. 1873237 Annie PINILLE
c.271 c. 1873238 Agnes SHIELDS Father: Henry239
c.272 c. 1873240; readmitted from Gulgong 28 March 1875241 Charlotte HENRY 1864242 Father: James; Mother, Jane; Sister: Mary Ann
c.273 c. 1873243 Mary Ann HENRY 1867244 Father: James; Mother, Jane; Sister: Charlotte
c.274 8 January 1874245 Sydney Mary Ann246 Eliza or Ellen FLETCHER 1859247 Father: Josiah FLETCHER (in Hobart);248 Mother: died around 1863; Sister: Louisa FLETCHER
c.275 13 February 1874249 Braidwood250 Mary AUBYRNE or AUBURN 1867251 unknown Sister: Sarah AUBURN to Newcastle
c.276 16 February 1874252 Sydney Maria Louisa DAWES 1860253
c.277 4 March 1874254 Sydney Jane STANFORD255 1859256
c.278 20 March 1874 Parkes257 Elizabeth TOUT258 1865259 aft. 1881260 Mother: Rose; Sister: Rosanna TOUT (admission 207)
c.279 20 March 1874 Parkes Thomas TOUT (M) 1869261 Mother: Rose; Sister: Rosanna and Elizabeth; Brother: Owen, David and William TOUT on the Vernon; transferred to Vernon 16 December 1875262
c.280 20 March 1874 Parkes David TOUT (M) 1872 Mother: Rose; Sister: Elizabeth and Rosanna TOUT; Brother: Owen, Thomas and William TOUT on the Vernon; transferred to Vernon 16 December 1875263
c.281 c. April 1874264 Maitland Rachel Rebecca BOGAN 1868265 Father: John; Mother: Elizabeth; Brother: Edward John BOGAN to Vernon
c.282 5 May 1874266 Sydney Mary Jane267 COULTER 1860268
c.283 14 May 1874269 Gulgong Eliza GRAHAM 1860 Father: George GRAHAM; Mother: Bridget; Step-father: John TIGHE270 or TYE
c.284 18 May 1874271 Sydney Emily SOMERS or SUMMERS 1859272
c.285 26 May 1874273 Sydney Agnes CRADDOCK 1858274 1938275 Father: William; Mother: Jane; married 1879276
c.286 1 June 1874277 Sydney Eliza Matilda WARING or WEARING278 1859279 Father: Edwin; Mother: Jemima Maude
c.287 1 July 1874280 Sydney Ann or Annie McCARTHY or McCARTY281 1860 Father: Jeremiah McCARTHY; Mother: Ann McCARTHY
c.288 8 July 1874282 Sydney Elizabeth Maria283 or Eliza MILLS 1859 Mother: Elizabeth MILLS
c.289 14 August 1874284 Singleton285 Alice GARBUTT or GARBET286 1865287 Father: James (in Maitland gaol);288 Mother: Mary H. (absconded)
c.290 14 August 1874289 Singleton290 Minnie aka Mary GARBUTT or GARBET291 1867292
c.291 13 October 1874293 Sydney Maria BRUNTON 1862 Father: Robert BRUNTON
c.292 20 October 1874294 Sydney Annie Maria HARRIS 1867 Sister: Eliza
c.293 20 October 1874295 Sydney Eliza HARRIS 1865 Sister: Annie Maria
c.294 c. 1874296 Sarah McBURNISH
c.295 late 1874297 Catherine HENRY 1871 sister to Charlotte and Mary Ann
c.296 c. 1874298 Mary RUSDEN 1861299
c.297 29 December 1874300 Gulgong Mary Ann INGLIS 1862301 living in Mudgee302
c.298 by 1875303 Lucy LONG
c.299 3 February 1875304 Sydney Annie QUINN 1861 Father: alive 1875; Mother: dead by 1875
c.300 19 February 1875305 Sydney Mary Ann CLIFTON306 1860 Father: Charles; Mother: Bridget;307 Parents alive 1875
c.301 22 March 1875308 Sydney Ann SULLIVAN309 1861 Father: John; Mother: Mary; Sister: Ellen admitted to Biloela in January 1877310
c.302 24 April 1875311 Sydney312 Margaret NEILL 1861313 Parents died in Victoria; Sister alive
c.303 by May 1875314 Annie Maria JONES 1863315 1880316 Sister: Mary Elizabeth
c.304 by May 1875317 Mary Elizabeth JONES Sister: Annie Maria
c.305 by August 1875 Minnie LEWIS318 c. 1860319
c.306 c. August 1875320 Braidwood Mary Ann DALE Step-mother: Ann Elizabeth DALE
c.307 28 September 1875321 Gulgong Mary Ann DOGHERTY 1865322
c.308 28 September 1875323 Gulgong Martha Jane DOGHERTY c.1862324
c.309 4 October 1875325 Braidwood326 tried Araluen327 Priscilla NEWMAN 1859328 Father: Thomas; Mother: Priscilla
c.310 18 October 1875329 Sydney330 Ellen Barbara331 MOORE 1864 Father: Willis MOORE;332 'a coloured girl'333
c.311 by October 1875334 Sydney Mary NUTHERCUTT, NETHERCUT or LEATHERCOURT 1858 Father: John NUTHERCUTT; Mother: Ellen
c.312 29 October 1875335 Sydney Louisa LEWIS336 or LOUIS337 1865
c.313 24 November 1875338 Deniliquin339 Catherine PERRYMAN 1869 Father: Henry PERRYMAN; Mother: Catherine; Brothers: Robert, Henry, John340
c.314 24 November 1875341 Deniliquin342 John PERRYMAN 1873 Father: Henry PERRYMAN; Mother: Catherine; Brothers: Robert, Henry, John343
c.315 3 December 1875344 Sydney Agnes DEVLIN c.1861
c.316 c. 22 December 1875345 Goulburn Kate346 COUGHLAN 1862 1938 Sister: Mary Ann COUGHLAN admitted to Newcastle
c.317 by 1875347 Maud SMITH c.1867348
c.318 by 1875349 Maria McGUIRK 1858
c.319 by 1875350 Violet Mabel PALMER b.c. 1868351
c.320 by February 1876352 Bathurst Charlotte TOOHEY353 aka SAUNDERS 1860354 In gaol 1875355
c.321 about February 1876356 William HORSFALL 1874357 discharged to his mother March 1877
c.322 by March 1876358 Ellen WILSON359 c.1865360
c.323 9 March 1876361 Sydney362 Alicia363 HARRISON 1861 Father: William HARRISON; parents divorced364
c.324 18 March 1876365 Sydney Sarah KELLY c. 1868366 brothers: Timothy and Thomas to Vernon
c.325 25 March 1876367 Harriett GANE 1861368 Father alive 1876; Mother: Theresa GANE
c.326 28 March 1876369 Gulgong Ann PEARSON370
c.327 29 March 1876371 Rockley Mary Ann McFEE aka McPHEE372 c. 1863373
c.328 March 1876374 Armidale Mary FITZSIMONS375 c.1873376
c.329 22 May 1876377 29 April 1876378 Bathurst379 Sarah Ann BRYANT 1864 Father: possibly Thomas; Mother: dead by 1876; Step-sister: possibly Charlotte YOW380)
c.330 by July 1876381 Ann LAMBERT Father: possibly Thomas; Mother: Ann; possibly sister to Louise LAMBERT admitted 1877
c.331 by July 1876382 Laura LUNNISS or LUNNINS c.1862383
334 5 July 1876384 Sydney Rose SCOTT385 Father: Thomas SCOTT;386
335 19 July 1876387 Sydney Eliza Jane WILLIS 1860388 1876389 Father: William WILLIS;390 Mother: alive 1876
336 c. 9 August 1876391 Gulgong Melinda KEOGH392 c. 1863393 Father alive 1876; Mother in gaol394
337 14 August 1876395 Sydney Mary396 or Eliza397 LANE 1861 Father: John LANE; Mother: Catherine nee unknown398
338 c. 26 August 1876399 Albury Elizabeth HANNA or HEANE400 c.1874401 Father a Chinaman; Mother: Margaret BAILEY in Melbourne
339 c. 15 September 1876 Bathurst402 Mary Ann TYSON403 c. 1871404 Father: Frederick TYSON a cripple [unclear] [unclear] in infirmary since about March last;405 Mother: Mary Ann TYSON406
340 c. 15 September 1876407 Bathurst408 Charlotte TYSON b.c. 1863409 Father: Frederick; Mother: Mary Ann
341 20 September 1876410 Sydney Emma BLAKE 1861411 father in Redfern separated from wife; Father: William; Mother: Catherine; probably admission 341 and either the sister of or cousin of Sarah Jane BLAKE admitted to Newcastle
342 18 October 1876412 Ten Mile Creek Jenny DAVIS c.1872413 Parents alive; grandmother alive
343 18 October 1876414 Parkes Julietta aka Julia ANSELINE c. 1864415 aft. 1888 father dead; Father: Jules ANSELINE; mother in Forbes gaol for sly grog selling; Mother: Mary ANSELINE416 alias MORRIS;417 Sister: Emily; Brothers: Everis and Alfred to Vernon
344 18 October 1876 Parkes Emily ANSELINE418 1869419 1938420 father dead; Father: Jules ANSELINE; mother in Forbes gaol for sly grog selling; Mother: Mary MORRIS; Sister: Julietta aka Julia; Brothers: Everis and Alfred to Vernon
345421 6 November 1876422 Deniliquin Emmaline FEATHERSTONE423 1871 Father: Charles FEATHERSTONE; mother dead by 1876

Biloela Reformatory Admissions

No record for any Reformatory admissions to Newcastle or Biloela has yet been found. Girls known to have been admitted to the Reformatory do not appear in any records for the Industrial School. One incomplete list naming the inmates in Newcastle424 and those admitted to Biloela by August 1874 exists.425 Newspaper reports or entries in the NSW Police Gazette have been used to tentatively identify girls admitted to the Reformatory after August 1874. In September 1875 there were nine inmates426 and by December 1876 there were fourteen girls in the Biloela Reformatory.427

Tried Location Given Surname, variation or alias Born Died Remarks
6(R) 6 June 1871 Newcastle428 Louisa BELLINGHAM or BILLINGHAM c.1860 1925
7(R) 1 December 1871429 Forbes Rosanna TOUT or TOUTE 1859 transferred to the Industrial School
8(R) 20 January 1872430 Ryde431 Elizabeth Ann PHILLIPS 1857 1931 Admitted first to and discharged from Newcastle in 1869
9(R) 25 May 1872432 Young Bessie Maud DANGAR433 transferred to the Industrial School
10(R) 26 October 1872 Sydney Emmeline Mary PETERS434 1860435
11(R) 18 January 1873436 Sydney437 Jane438 SCHOFIELD or CAULFIELD439 1860440 1875441 Father: Joseph CAULFIELD; Mother: Catherine FITZPATRICK
12(R) 18 January 1873442 Sydney443 Caroline WALL444 or HALL445 1863446
13(R) 18 January 1873447 Sydney448 Elizabeth SUMMERS 1862449
14(R) 29 January 1873 Wallabadah450 Susan JOHANNES
15(R) 17 May 1873451 Sydney Kate GALLEN or GOLLUN452 1859
16(R) 24 November 1873453 Sydney454 Mary Ann or Mary Jane ALLISON 1863 Mother: Bridget455
17(R) 1 December 1873456 Armidale Mary Ann Elizabeth SWAN
18(R) 30 January 1874457 Sydney458 Annie HARRISON Mother: Margaret HARRISON
19(R) 25 April 1874459 Sydney460 Matilda MORRISON 1861461
20(R) 4 July 1874462 Wagga Wagga Mary THOMPSON c. 1861
21(R) 29 September 1874463 Sydney Mary Jane or Mary Ann HOLTEN464 aka COLE465 Mother alive 1874
22(R) 13 October 1874466 Sydney Elizabeth HOWIE467 1860
23(R) 16 November 1874468 Sydney Harriet SCHOFIELD or SCHOEFIELD469 1862
24(R) 24 November 1874470 Sydney Mary Jane SCORES471 1861
25(R) 19 January 1875472 Sydney Mary RYAN473 1860
26(R) 24 December 1875474 Sydney Sarah WATT475 1860476
27(R) 24 August 1876477 Sydney Bertha BECKE or BECK478 1862
28(R) 24 August 1876479 Sydney Edith DATSON 1863
29(R) 24 August 1876480 Sydney Annie or Hannah481 WALSH 1861 Father alive 1876
30(R) c. 1878482 Sydney Julietta aka Julia ANSELINE c. 1864 aft. 1888 Father: Jules ANSELINE; Mother: Mary MORRIS; absconded from industrial school apprenticeship and sent to Reformatory
31(R) abt. January 1879 Inverell483 Elizabeth Dora ALLEN c. 1864
32(R) 16 June 1879484 Sydney Margaret VANNAN c. 1865 Father: William; Mother: Catherine (See also: CSIL: 80/3460 [1/2482])
33(R) abt. November 1879 Inverell485 Eliza Ann BURNS c. 1867

Shaftesbury Reformatory Admissions

On 5 February 1880 the premises on Cockatoo Island ceased to be a Reformatory School and the Shaftesbury Reformatory for Females at Watson's Bay was proclaimed. The cottage style premises were intended to house forty to fifty girls. Girls were sentenced to the reformatory for periods of one to five years.
The numbers actually housed here were small often numbering fewer than 20. 13 girls were in residence in 1900 when the State Children Relief Board took control of Shaftesbury. The Board then placed 25 female State wards (either invalids or girls who were unsuitable to apprentice as domestic servants) into the home in addition to the girls under sentence.
Shaftesbury closed in March 1904 and the girls were boarded-out. On 12 April 1904 the Shaftesbury ceased to be a reformatory school and a portion of the Central Depot for the State children at "Ormond House", Paddington was proclaimed a Reformatory School for Females. The girls under sentence were transferred to Ormond House in 1905.486

Shaftesbury remained under the superintendency of Agnes KING. Admissions to the reformatory were not identified in any Industrial School records and only one admission register dating from 1888 survives.487 Girls admitted before 1888 are identified below. Newspaper reports or entries in the NSW Police Gazette have been used to identify girls admitted to the Reformatory after February 1880.

The mysterious Jane MURPHY who was transferred from Goulburn Gaol with her brother, Henry, on 28 November 1877 and Mary EVANS also from Goulburn Gaol who was sent to Biloela at the same time as Emily JACKSON but does not appear in the Biloela records, need more investigation as these girls cannot be found being admitted to Biloela. They are not recorded in industrial school admissions so were perhaps admitted to the Reformatory.

Tried Location Given Surname, variation or alias Born Died Remarks
33(R) abt. August 1880 Goulburn488 Louisa BULLOCK 1866
34(R) 23 August 1880 Newtown489 Mary Jane TAYLOR 1866
35(R) abt. November 1880 Sydney490 Agnes MARSHALL 1866
36(R) 30 December 1880 Sydney491 Elizabeth WATSON 1868 father dead; mother alive
37(R) 30 December 1880 Sydney492 Ann CALLISTER 1871 parents in Surry Hills
38(R) 8 March 1881 Newcastle493 Joanna SMITH 1867 mother in Newcastle
39(R) 22 March 1881494 Sydney495 Alice ASHPLANT 1863496 1938 alias Emily McINTOSH; Father John' Mother Mary Ann
40(R) 6 June 1881 Newtown497 Rebecca NOBBS 1868 illegitimate; Mother: Lucy498
41(R) 20 June 1881 Albury499 Margaret MULLENS c. 1868 father dead; mother remarried
42(R) abt. August 1881500 Greta501 Alice BAKER 1874
43(R) 18 August 1881 Sydney502 Helena KINGER 1869 alias CROTTY
44(R) 18 August 1881 Sydney503 Rosanna BOURKE 1871
45(R) 30 September 1881504 Glen Innes505 Sarah Jane CLARKE 1868506
46(R) 6 December 1881 Windsor507 Matilda BARTON Father: William
47(R) 4 January 1882 Sydney508 Alice JAMIESON 1869509 Sister: Agnes
48(R) 5 January 1882 Goulburn510 Maud Jane aka Mary Jane LAMB Mother: Mary; father in gaol; Sister: Violet May511
49(R) c. March 1882 Temora512 Emily513 JACKSON c. 1868 parents alive; sister in Young gaol
50(R) 4 April 1882 Echuca514 Matilda HUBBARD parents dead; cousin Mr FRISWELL
51(R) 5 May 1882 Sydney515 Elizabeth McKINLAY 1868 mother alive
52(R) 8 May 1882 Newtown516 Emily J. MILLER 1868 grandmother alive517
53(R) 26 June 1882 Newtown518 Elizabeth FERRY 1868
54(R) abt. August 1882 Orange519 unknown Unnamed 1870 Chinese half-caste520
55(R) 4 November 1882 Newtown521 Amy GRIMBLE 1867 alias NEAREN
56(R) 14 December 1882; readmitted to Shaftesbury May 1887522 Wollongong523 Harriett WELLER aka ELLIS 1871 Adoptive Father: John WELLER
57(R) c. 2 January 1883 Windsor524 Mary TURNER 1868
58(R) abt. 1883525 unknown Sarah Jane BUTLER 1868
59(R) 31 January 1883 Newtown526 Alice LENTON 1869 Stepfather: Henry LENTON527
60(R) 30 June 1883 Bathurst528 Margaret McGREGOR
61(R) abt. June 1883 Yass529 Eliza aka Elizabeth COOPER 1869530 mother and brother living
62(R) abt. June 1883 Cowra unknown McGREGOR 1869531
63(R) abt. July 1883 Forbes Mary DREW alias SCOLLIOSS 1874532
64(R) 7 August 1883 Bathurst533 Emily CARTER
65(R) 7 August 1883 Bathurst534 Minnie SCALLION
66(R) bef. January 1884 Goulburn535 Jane aka Emily Jane LONG 1870536 Father: Peter (a coloured537 man)538 Mother: Mary Ann; Sister: Mary Susan (in Biloela)539
67(R) 2 January 1884 East Maitland540 Annie BROWN 1873 father dead; mother remarried
68(R) 17 April 1884 Goulburn541 Ada MULLALLY 1868 father in Melbourne; mother dead
69(R) 18 April 1884 Redfern542 Dana JOHNSON 1870
70(R) abt. May 1884 Tamworth543 Hannah GUTHERIE
71(R) 1 August 1884 Goulburn544 Rebecca CARTER 1869545 Mother: Mary Ann living; father thousands of miles away
72(R) 22 January 1885 Sydney546 Christina AIRD Parents living
73(R) 24 June 1885 Redfern547 Esther ROSEVEAR 1870
74(R) 3 December 1885 Wilcannia548 Sarah REID Sent for Protection for 5 years
75(R) 9 December 1885 Balmain549 Isabella Horn550 HAWTHORNE 1874 Adoptive father: Robert CHISHOLM
76(R) 19 December 1885 Goulburn551 Kate GRONO 1871
77(R) 20 April 1886552 Sydney553 Lily or Lilly FOREST 1870 Father living
78(R) 23 June 1886 Redfern554 Blanche DOUGLAS 1871
79(R) abt. 6 June 1886 Bathurst555 Ellen RALSTON 1871
80(R) 17 July 1886 Bathurst556 Adelaide STEELE 1874 Father dead; Mother: Elizabeth STEELE
81(R) 6 October 1886 Goulburn557 Emily McNEICE 1873558 1909559 Mother: Annie McNEICE; Aunts: Eliza, Sarah and Mary McNEICE admitted to Newcastle
82(R) bef. November 1886560 unknown Sarah DEMPSEY c. 1873
83(R) 19 November 1886561 Yass Emily CROUCH 1872
84(R) 19 November 1886562 Redfern Phyllis FRATER 1872
85(R) 20 January 1887563 Redfern Ada BOOTH 1875 Grandmother: Caroline BOOTH
86(R) bef. February 1887 Sydney Julia McKEON 1878 Father: Joseph; Mother: Maria; admitted to Parramatta in February 1888564
87(R) abt. February 1887 Sydney565 Mabel HELLER
88(R) 20 April 1887566 Redfern Jessie GIFFEN 1873
89(R) 12 May 1887567 Sydney Mary Jane KERRIGAN 1872
90(R) 15 May 1887568 Sydney Harriett ELLIS 1872
91(R) 17 May 1887569 Sydney Mary Jane HOGAN 1872
92(R) 8 September 1887570 Redfern Jane ROSKELLY aka ROSS KELLY 1875 Father: John ROSS KELLY; mother died seven months earlier; Brother: John; three siblings
93(R) 30 September 1887571 Sydney Lena JONES
94(R) 30 December 1887572 Sydney Elizabeth Ann GRIEVES

Updated October 2019

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