Biloela on Cockatoo Island, Sydney Harbour was the second of the locations of the Industrial Schools for Girls. The location of the school was in the premises of the men's prison, formerly known as Cockatoo Island, that had been renamed, presumably to make it appear a more palatable place for keeping young girls.

BIL-OE-LA (pronounced Billowy la), the name of the new establishment provided by the Government for the girls recently removed from Newcastle, has excited some curiosity in regard to its derivation. It is an aboriginal word, meaning "cockatoo," as will be found by reference to the Hon. W. Ridley's book on Kamilaroi. The name Biloela is not given to the whole of the island, but only to the Industrial School premises. The name of the island has already been changed once. Some years ago it was called Banks' Island, in honour of Sir Joseph Banks. Since the removal of the girls to their new school – where they are entirely removed from encouragement by the plaudits of inconsiderate and vicious persons – it is said that there has been more effective discipline.1

The area of the school was defined in the Government Gazette on 26 May 1871, as

… the Western portion of the Island within the following boundaries: – Commencing on the southern margin of the Island, at about 57 feet easterly from the eastern Lime-kiln – and bounded thence on the east by a line bearing about north 10½ degrees east about 278 feet to the southern corner of the enclosure, northerly of the covered tank ; thence by the south-western boundary-wall of that enclosure, north-westerly about 118 feet ; thence by a line south-westerly at right angles to that boundary about 25 feet ; and thence by a line bearing about north 32 degrees west 240 feet to the northern margin of the Island, and on the north-west, on the west and on the south, by the waters of Port Jackson, south-westerly, southerly and easterly to the point of commencement.2


Biloela (1876)
Image courtesy of Trove - Digitalized Newspapers
The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912)3

… [The] view of Biloela from the mainland near Birchgrove … shows the south-eastern side of the island, where are situated the Fitzroy Dock Works. The place for years bore the name of Cockatoo Island, but when the Crown prisoners were removed from it, and the establishment was made use of as a female reformatory and industrial school, it received the more euphonious aboriginal designation, "Biloela." In the foreground of the picture is part of Birchgrove. In the background beyond Biloela appear the highlands at the entrance to Lane Cove. To the left are the western extremity of Spectacle Island (now used as a gunpowder depot) and Pulpit Point. Biloela Island is about a quarter of a mile in length. The magnificent dock works, constructed in the solid rock, were effected almost exclusively by the use of prison labour. The dock is 400 feet long with 20 feet depth of water over the sill. The Galatea, of over 3600 tons burden, was taken in without the slightest difficulty.4

The planning to transfer the girls was almost certainly finalised between 18 April 1871, when CLARKE handed over the school to LUCAS, and 26 May when this new superintendency was proclaimed by the Governor, Somerset Richard, Earl of Belmore. The 26th was the day when the younger girls were actually transferred from Newcastle to Sydney aboard the Morpeth.5 The elder 'more refractory' girls left Newcastle on the Government steamer, Thetis, the following day.6 Girls who were tried in Sydney7 during May or country NSW8 during late April, were retained in Sydney and never reached the Newcastle site.9

The decision to remove the girls from Newcastle was made partly in response to the proximity of the school to residences, the ease of escape and the wild behaviour of the girls on the easily observable site. The major reason for Newcastle's closure was unstated but was almost certainly economic.10 By placing the girls on the island in the old Biloela gaol buildings, it was hoped that these problems would be reduced or eliminated. This was true only in regard to the cost savings of locating the school near Sydney and to the isolation of the site. That Cockatoo Island was an unwise location for the welfare of the girls was apparent to members of the media and possibly many others at the time and criticism of the government's wisdom in making this decision began shortly after the relocation.

'From the Sydney Punch'
In Sydney Harbor thar's an isle,
A place that's dull and drear,
With nary tree upon its sile –
It looks pertickler queer ;
It ain't at all the sort of isle
Whar lovers bill and coo –
Its character is raly vile –
Folks call it " Cockatoo."
As Cockatoo its known to Fame –
Known also to each Peeler,
But lately they hev changed its name
An' called it " Biloela."
It's now the home of rowdy gals –
A naughty sister-hood –
Who, 'prison'd on thet rocky isle,
Air larnin' to be good !
But 'taint no use – they'll never larn –
Those gals air reg'lar squalers,
An' horrid yarns the folks du tell
About them Biloelas.
They scream, and roar, and tear their clothes
An cuss an' swear a few –
Why Biloela's ten times wuss
Than was old Cockatoo!
On that thar isle thar is a dock,
Whar ships of war repair ;
Hard by them virgins under lock
The dry dock still is there !
The wisdom of some public men,
In that is clearly shown ;
Them chaps should have their praises cut
In Biloela stone! …12

The site was badly chosen as it had difficult access and a shortage of fresh water. Visiting clergy who came often and with ease to Newcastle were required to travel to the island and while sisters from the House of the Good Shepherd ministered religious education to the Catholic girls, the teacher, Margaret KELLY became responsible for the Protestants. Attacks were made on the buildings by visiting sailors arriving at the nearby Fitzroy Dock. Riots amongst the inmates still occurred and successful escapes were made from the island. Frequently small boats and dingys containing men cruised around the island. Any girls who were observed to be conversing with these men were locked in one of the dormitories. The time for their confinement varied but 'for the remainder of the day' was one such imprisonment.13 One instance of the male offenders being referred to court was reported to the Colonial Secretary by LUCAS on 18 October 1871,14 but this court case has not yet been found. The isolated nature of the school from public scrutiny was not good for the inmates.

Biloela Industrial School Admissions

Because the first admissions to Biloela are located in the missing pages of the Entrance Book,15 girls who were identified as having been admitted to Cockatoo Island during this period have been recorded below. Many trial locations are unidentified and it has not always been possible to identify an exact admission date but an attempt has been made to place the admissions in an approximate chronological order. Their names have been sourced from LUCAS's April 1872 list16 and supplemented by mentions in the superintendent's weekly reports from the CSIL. Each weekly report may only name one girl. It was possible to match young admissions and later arrivals by cross-referencing their names in the Child Welfare Index.17 If only a discharge record from the Biloela Discharge Register is identified on this index then that inmate had to have been recorded in the Entrance Book during the period when the pages were missing. Unfortunately, any older inmate admitted before or during 1875 may have been discharged before the Discharge Register was commenced. Individual letters in the CSIL index that specified Biloela as a location were also identified.18 The Police Gazettes and Trove also reported some court locations or admissions.

The list below contains the names of the missing 157 Biloela admissions. Variations in spelling and handwriting have resulted in at least two duplications that are still being identified. Of these admissions seven were those of young boys under the age of 8 years who were eventually transferred from Biloela – usually onto the nearby Vernon. Names of boys have been recorded in bold to enable them to be identified easily on the list. Of the final eleven admissions whose family details appear on the first page after the missing section of the Entrance Book, almost all have been identified and matched to their family details. The list is amended as further details are uncovered.

It is not the intention to investigate the lives or circumstances of the Biloela inmates unless they were the sisters of girls who were admitted to Newcastle. If you believe that you are connected to any of these girls or would like to further investigate their lives, please contact me and it can be arranged for you to contribute what you can uncover of their story in their own biography on this site.

Tried Location Given Surname, variation or alias Born Died Remarks
188 April 187119 Hay Catherine Amy aka Catherine Emma20 aka Emma21 MULLENS 186522 Father: William; Mother: Catherine23
189 9 May 1871 Sydney Elizabeth BADCOCK aka KING c.1856 aft.1871 Mother: Mary HEARSEY or THURSEY24
190 11 May 187125 readmitted 21 January 187326 Sydney Mary Ann WILLIAMS Aunt: Mrs LODGE27
191 13 June 187128 Sydney Caroline BLENMAN 185429 193730 Father: Thomas BLENMAN; Mother: Margaret MANSFIELD
192 6 July 187131 Newcastle Alice or Amy aka Lily Alice ZANONI aka HORROCKS 186832 195233 Father: Vincent ZANONI; Mother: Eleanor TOTTEN; Brother: Albert Amado to the Vernon
193 6 July 187134 Newcastle Ellena aka Lena Ellen ZANONI aka HORROCKS 186635 195236 Father: Vincent ZANONI; Mother: Eleanor TOTTEN; Brother: Albert Amado to the Vernon
194 14 August 187137 Sydney Sarah BURKE or BOURKE c.1854 188838
195 22 November 187139 Sydney Elizabeth DONOHOE or DONOHUE 185640
196 28 November 187141 Sydney Elizabeth or Eliza BURNS42 aka BROWN
197 12 January 187243 Grenfell44 Jane DAVIS 1858 Mother: Mary Ann DAVIS; Brother-in-law: Mr ALLSOP45
198 25 January 187246 Sydney Elizabeth LEACH
199 6 February 1872; readmitted March 1875 Gosford Eliza MILES47 or MYLES c.185848 Father alive 1875; Father: William; Mother: Margaret
200 20 February 187249 Sydney Janet BOYD50 185951 Father: John; Mother: Janet; parents alive 1872
201 28 February 1872 Annie DOOLEY or DARLEY52
202 2 March 187253 Sydney Theresa WAGONER 1857
203 4 March 1872 Newcastle54 Clare or Clara ANDREWS or ANDREW c.186155 Father: John; Mother: Ellen
204 4 March 187256 Sydney Annie BUCKLEY
205 2 March 187257 Sydney Elizabeth SHARKEY58 1857
206 16 March 1872 Newcastle59 Mary HORNBACK 186960 Location of father unknown: mother (a coloured woman)61 in gaol
207 2 April 187262 Sydney Rosanna TOUT or TOUTE 1859 transferred from the Reformatory
c.20863 13 March 187264 Cooma Ann RODHAM or RODDAM 185865 father alive 1872
c.209 c. May 1872 Margaret CHATTEY66
c.210 27 June 187267 Young68 Bessie Maud69 DANGAR70 185871 Father: James HEYWARD; Mother: Mary Eliza DANGAR; Step-father: Thomas WEST;72 transferred from the Reformatory
c.211 6 July 1872 Albury73 Marian SMITH74
c.212 6 August 1872 Tamworth75 Ellen LEWIS c. 186276 Sister: Kate
c.213 6 August 1872 Tamworth77 Kate LEWIS Sister: Ellen
c.214 15 August 187278 Maitland Elizabeth EDDINGTON
c.215 22 August 187279 Sydney Louisa WINTER aka WILSON 1859 1890 First admission was to Newcastle Reformatory
c.216 29 August 1872 Araluen Jane HAND 185680 discharged to the Newcastle Asylum, November 187281
c.217 c. September 1872 Cargo82 Leah EMANUEL 186783 Mother: Kate (alive 1872)
c.218 17 October 187284 Sydney Sarah85 LITTLEWOOD86 1859 Mother: Johanna aka Hannah LITTLEWOOD87
c.219 15 November 187288 Mudgee Lizzie aka Elizabeth THOMASLIN 1858 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah89
c.220 15 November 187290 Mudgee Lucy THOMASLIN 1861 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah91
c.221 15 November 187292 Mudgee Margaret THOMASLIN93 1865 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah94
c.222 15 November 187295 Mudgee Joseph THOMASLIN (M) 1869 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah;96 Sisters: Margaret, Lizzy and Lucy; transferred to Sydney Benevolent Asylum 15 November 1872, then to Randwick Asylum 17 January 1876.
c.223 17 November 1872 Dubbo Louisa surname unknown97 c. 186898
c.224 23 November 187299 Sydney Sarah Ann BROWN 1858100 parents alive 1872
c.225 7 December 1872101 Wagga Wagga Eliza COOKE or COOK or CORK102 1862103
c.226 7 December 1872104 Wagga Wagga Sarah OSBORNE 1860 1874105 Mother: possibly Sarah106 or Father: William and Mother: Eliza J. (born Gundagai)
c.227 9 December 1872 Gulgong107 Agnes LEWIS108 1869109 Father: Samuel; Mother: Agnes; Sister: Elizabeth
c.228 9 December 1872110 Gulgong Elizabeth LEWIS111 1865112 Father: Samuel; Mother: Agnes; Sister: Agnes
c.229 c. 2 December 1872113 Narrabri114 Charlotte ANGUS 1858115 discharged to the Benevolent Asylum, 30 May 1873116
c.230 c. January 1873117 Florence GRAY
c.231 c. January 1873118 Mary Jane THORNTON119 1862 Mother: Margaret;120 alive 1877121
c.232 3 February 1873122 Caroline ATTWELL123 1860124 father: Robert; mother: Mary; sister: Mary125
c.233 3 February 1873126 Gulgong Robert or Henry GARDEM aka GARDENER127 1868128 1940129 Father: Charles aka Rowley (in gaol); Mother: Mary J. McNAMARA (dead);130 Brother: Stephen aka Rowley; transferred to the Vernon November 1874
c.234 3 February 1873 Gulgong Stephen or Rowley GARDNER or GARDEM or GARDEN or GARDENER131 1870132 1950133 Father: Charles aka Rowley (in gaol); Mother: Mary Jane McNAMARA (dead); Brother: Henry aka Robert; transferred to the Vernon 3 February 1877; absconded134
c.235 c. February 1873 Mary Ann LESLIE 1865135 Father: James; Mother: Jane
c.236136 by March 1873137 Ann KING138
c.237139 by March 1873140 Rebecca YOUNG141
c.238 1 March 1873142 Muswellbrook Rebecca143 NEWMAN b. 1869144 Father: William NEWMAN; Mother: Mary
c.239 c. March 1873145 Ellen RICE likely sister: Mrs Jane// DONOVAN146
c.240 c. March 1873;147 readmitted May 1880148 Sarah RICE149 1864150 aft. 1882 likely sister: //Mrs Jane// DONOVAN151
c.241 c. March 1873152 Mary MARCH
c.242 18 March 1873153 Sydney Amelia HASSON or HASSAN or HASSOM
c.243 21 March 1873154 Sydney Sarah Ann YOUNG LING155 1858156 Father: unknown Chinaman157 Mother: Eliza DAVIS; Aunt: Jane DAVIS
c.244 29 March 1873158 Sydney Ellen or Eliza159 TROWELL or TIOWELL or TIMELL160 1861 parents dead by 1873 but grandmother alive
c.245 18 April 1873161 Sydney Eliza162 or Elizabeth163 ROBERTS 1858 Father dead by 1873; Mother: Mary ROBERTS
c.246 3 May 1873164 Wagga Wagga Ellen TOMLINSON b. 1867165 Father: John; Mother: Honorah Ann aka Ann;166 Brother: Walter
c.247 3 May 1873167 Wagga Wagga Walter168 TOMLINSON b. 1872169 Father: John; Mother: Honorah Ann aka Ann;170 Sister: Ellen; Transferred to the //Vernon April 1880 but no admission to the Vernon has been located.
c.248 c. 13 May 1873171 returned from apprenticeship 29 December 1876172 Newcastle Mary JENNINGS 1861173 mother: Mary JENNINGS;174 sister: Sarah admitted to Biloela in 1880
c.249 24 June 1873175 Sydney Ellen SCOURCE 1859176
c.250 14 July 1873177 Parramatta Abigail YOUNG c.1860178
c.251 25 July 1873179 Sydney Fanny BROOKBACK180 aka BROOKBANK or BROOKLAND181 aka TAYLOR 1862182 Mother: Fanny MARSHALL
c.252 30 July 1873183 Goulburn Emma MUNN184 or MANN185 alias SIMMONS or KIMBERLEY186 1860187 Father: George;188 Mother: Ellen; Sister alive189
c.253 31 July 1873190 discharged September 1874191 Sydney Ann aka Annie SMITH 1858 Qld Father alive 1873;192 Mother dead by 1873; Aunt: Ella LIGHT193
c.254 14 August 1873194 Sydney Ellen LEWIS 1859 Mother: Sarah LEWIS; unknown brother195
c.255 16 August 1873196 Sydney Charlotte CALF 1860 1940 Sister: Eliza CALF admitted to Newcastle
c.256 23 August 1873;197 discharged September 1874;198 readmitted May 1875199 Gulgong Emma SMITHSON 1861
c.257 23 August 1873200 Gulgong Eliza aka Ellen GREER
c.258 2 September 1873201 Sydney Mary Ann WILSON c.1860202 Father gone for two years; Mother: alive 1873
c.259 10 September 1873203 Sydney Charlotte204 aka Ellen205 JENKINS206 1858 Mother: Elizabeth FREER
c.260 bef. 14 September207 1873208 Emma GREY
c.261 15 September 1873209 Sydney Kate McINERNEY210 or McQUERNEY or McENEMY211 1860 Parents dead by 1873
c.262 25 September 1873212 Sydney Mary Ann MARSHALL213 1860 Father: John;214 Mother: alive 1873; Sister: Hannah; Brother: Henry James MARSHALL215
c.263 29 September 1873216 Sydney Kate SHEEHAN217 or SKAHIN218 or SKALEND219 or SKEEHAN220 1858 Father dead by 1873; Mother alive 1873; Grandmother: Mrs MAHONEY
c.264 8 October 1873;221 readmitted 13 September 1875222 West Maitland223 Agnes Amelia TAYLOR224 1863225
c.265 27 October 1873226 Jerilderie Catherine Ann JONES discharged March 1876227
c.266 20 November 1873228 Sydney Mary Ann NAUGHTON229 1859 Grandmother: Ellen NAUGHTON
c.267 27 November 1873230 Sydney Margaret BOYLE 1859
c.268 24 December 1873231 Sydney Sarah WATT
c.269 c. 1873232 Annie PINILLE
c.270 c. 1873233 Agnes SHIELDS Father: Henry234
c.271 c. 1873235; readmitted from Gulgong 28 March 1875236 Charlotte HENRY 1864237 Father: James; Mother, Jane; Sister: Mary Ann
c.272 c. 1873238 Mary Ann HENRY 1867239 Father: James; Mother, Jane; Sister: Charlotte
c.273 8 January 1874240 Sydney Mary Ann241 Eliza or Ellen FLETCHER 1859242 Father: Josiah FLETCHER (in Hobart);243 Mother: died around 1863; Sister: Louisa FLETCHER
c.274 13 February 1874244 Braidwood245 Mary AUBYRNE or AUBURN 1867246 unknown Sister: Sarah AUBURN to Newcastle
c.275 16 February 1874247 Sydney Maria Louisa DAWES 1860248
c.276 4 March 1874249 Sydney Jane STANFORD250 1859251
c.277 20 March 1874 Parkes252 Elizabeth TOUT253 1865254 aft. 1881255 Mother: Rose; Sister: Rosanna TOUT (admission 207)
c.278 20 March 1874 Parkes Thomas TOUT (M) 1869256 Mother: Rose; Sister: Rosanna and Elizabeth; Brother: Owen, David and William TOUT on the Vernon; transferred to Vernon 16 December 1875257
c.279 20 March 1874 Parkes David TOUT (M) 1872 Mother: Rose; Sister: Elizabeth and Rosanna TOUT; Brother: Owen, Thomas and William TOUT on the Vernon; transferred to Vernon 16 December 1875258
c.280 c. April 1874259 Maitland Rachel Rebecca BOGAN 1868 Brother: Edward John BOGAN to Vernon
c.281 5 May 1874260 Sydney Mary Jane261 COULTER 1860262
c.282 14 May 1874263 Gulgong Eliza GRAHAM 1860 Father: George GRAHAM; Mother: Bridget; Step-father: John TIGHE264 or TYE
c.283 18 May 1874265 Sydney Emily SOMERS or SUMMERS 1859266
c.284 26 May 1874267 Sydney Agnes CRADDOCK 1858268 1938269 Father: William; Mother: Jane; married 1879270
c.285 1 June 1874271 Sydney Eliza Matilda WARING or WEARING272 1859273 Father: Edwin; Mother: Jemima Maude
c.286 1 July 1874274 Sydney Ann or Annie McCARTHY or McCARTY275 1860 Father: Jeremiah McCARTHY; Mother: Ann McCARTHY
c.287 8 July 1874276 Sydney Elizabeth Maria277 or Eliza MILLS 1859 Mother: Elizabeth MILLS
c.288 14 August 1874278 Singleton279 Alice GARBUTT or GARBET280 1865281 Father: James (in Maitland gaol);282 Mother: Mary H. (absconded)
c.289 14 August 1874283 Singleton284 Minnie aka Mary GARBUTT or GARBET285 1867286
c.290 13 October 1874287 Sydney Maria BRUNTON 1862 Father: Robert BRUNTON
c.291 20 October 1874288 Sydney Annie Maria HARRIS 1867 Sister: Eliza
c.292 20 October 1874289 Sydney Eliza HARRIS 1865 Sister: Annie Maria
c.293 c. 1874290 Sarah McBURNISH
c.294 late 1874291 Catherine HENRY 1871 sister to Charlotte and Mary Ann
c.295 c. 1874292 Mary RUSDEN 1861293
c.296 29 December 1874294 Gulgong Mary Ann INGLIS 1862295 living in Mudgee296
c.297 by 1875297 Lucy LONG
c.298 3 February 1875298 Sydney Annie QUINN 1861 Father: alive 1875; Mother: dead by 1875
c.299 19 February 1875299 Sydney Mary Ann CLIFTON300 1860301 Father: Charles; Mother: Bridget;302 Parents alive 1875
c.300 22 March 1875303 Sydney Ann SULLIVAN304 1861 Father: John; Mother: Mary; Sister: Ellen admitted to Biloela in January 1877305
c.301 24 April 1875306 Sydney307 Margaret NEILL 1861308 Parents died in Victoria; Sister alive
c.302 by May 1875309 Annie Maria JONES 1863310 1880311 Sister: Mary Elizabeth
c.303 by May 1875312 Mary Elizabeth JONES Sister: Annie Maria
c.304 by August 1875 Minnie LEWIS313 c. 1860314
c.305 c. August 1875315 Braidwood Mary Ann DALE Step-mother: Ann Elizabeth DALE
c.306 28 September 1875316 Gulgong Mary Ann DOGHERTY 1865317
c.307 28 September 1875318 Gulgong Martha Jane DOGHERTY c.1862319
c.308 4 October 1875320 Braidwood321 tried Araluen322 Priscilla NEWMAN 1859323 Father: Thomas; Mother: Priscilla
c.309 18 October 1875324 Sydney325 Ellen Barbara326 MOORE 1864 Father: Willis MOORE;327 'a coloured girl'328
c.310 by October 1875329 Sydney Mary NUTHERCUTT, NETHERCUT or LEATHERCOURT 1858 Father: John NUTHERCUTT; Mother: Ellen
c.311 29 October 1875330 Sydney Louisa LEWIS331 or LOUIS332 1865
c.312 24 November 1875333 Deniliquin334 Catherine PERRYMAN 1869 Father: Henry PERRYMAN; Mother: Catherine; Brothers: Robert, Henry, John335
c.313 c. 22 December 1875336 Goulburn Kate337 COUGHLAN 1862 1938 Sister: Mary Ann COUGHLAN admitted to Newcastle
c.314 by 1875338 Maud SMITH c.1867339
c.315 by 1875340 Maria McGUIRK 1858
c.316 by 1875341 Violet Mabel PALMER b.c. 1868342
c.317 by February 1876343 Bathurst Charlotte TOOHEY344 aka SAUNDERS 1860345 In gaol 1875346
c.318 about February 1876347 William HORSFALL 1874348 discharged to his mother March 1877
c.319 by March 1876349 Ellen WILSON350 c.1865351
c.320 9 March 1876352 Sydney353 Alicia354 HARRISON 1861 Father: William HARRISON; parents divorced355
c.321 18 March 1876356 Sydney Sarah KELLY c. 1868357 brothers: Timothy and Thomas to Vernon
c.322 25 March 1876358 Harriett GANE 1861359 Father alive 1876; Mother: Theresa GANE
c.323 28 March 1876360 Gulgong Ann PEARSON361
c.324 29 March 1876362 Rockley Mary Ann McFEE aka McPHEE363 c. 1863364
c.325 22 May 1876365 29 April 1876366 Bathurst367 Sarah Ann BRYANT 1864 Father: possibly Thomas; Mother: dead by 1876; Step-sister: possibly Charlotte YOW368)
c.326 by July 1876369 Ann LAMBERT Father: possibly Thomas; Mother: Ann; possibly sister to Louise LAMBERT admitted 1877
c.327 by July 1876370 Laura LUNNISS or LUNNINS c.1862371
c.328 c. 1876 Mary FITZSIMONS372 c.1873373
334 5 July 1876374 Sydney Rose SCOTT375 Father: Thomas SCOTT;376
335 19 July 1876377 Sydney Eliza Jane WILLIS 1860378 1876379 Father: William WILLIS;380 Mother: alive 1876
336 c. 9 August 1876381 Gulgong Melinda KEOGH382 c. 1863383 Father alive 1876; Mother in gaol384
337 14 August 1876385 Sydney Mary386 or Eliza387 LANE 1861 Father: John LANE; Mother: Catherine nee unknown388
338 c. 26 August 1876389 Albury Elizabeth HANNA or HEANE390 c.1874391 Father a Chinaman; Mother: Margaret BAILEY in Melbourne
339 c. 15 September 1876 Bathurst392 Mary Ann TYSON393 c. 1871394 Father: Frederick TYSON a cripple [unclear] [unclear] in infirmary since about March last;395 Mother: Mary Ann TYSON396
340 c. 15 September 1876397 Bathurst398 Charlotte TYSON b.c. 1863399 Father: Frederick; Mother: Mary Ann
341 20 September 1876400 Sydney Emma BLAKE 1861401 father in Redfern separated from wife; Father: William; Mother: Catherine; probably admission 341 and either the sister of or cousin of Sarah Jane BLAKE admitted to Newcastle
342 18 October 1876402 Ten Mile Creek Jenny DAVIS c.1870403 Parents alive; grandmother alive
343 18 October 1876404 Parkes Julietta aka Julia ANSELINE c. 1864405 aft. 1888 father dead; Father: Jules ANSELINE; mother in Forbes gaol for sly grog selling; Mother: Mary ANSELINE406 alias MORRIS;407 Sister: Emily; Brothers: Everis and Alfred to Vernon
344 18 October 1876 Parkes Emily ANSELINE408 1869409 1938410 father dead; Father: Jules ANSELINE; mother in Forbes gaol for sly grog selling; Mother: Mary MORRIS; Sister: Julietta aka Julia; Brothers: Everis and Alfred to Vernon
345411 6 November 1876412 Deniliquin Emmaline FEATHERSTONE413 1871 Father: Charles FEATHERSTONE; mother dead by 1876

Biloela Reformatory Admissions

No record for any Reformatory admissions to Newcastle or Biloela has yet been found. Girls known to have been admitted to the Reformatory do not appear in any records for the Industrial School. One incomplete list naming the inmates in Newcastle414 and those admitted to Biloela by August 1874 exists.415 Newspaper reports or entries in the NSW Police Gazette have been used to tentatively identify girls admitted to the Reformatory after August 1874. In September 1875 there were nine inmates416 and by December 1876 there were fourteen girls in the Biloela Reformatory.417

Tried Location Given Surname, variation or alias Born Died Remarks
6(R) 6 June 1871 Newcastle418 Louisa BELLINGHAM or BILLINGHAM c.1860 1925
7(R) 1 December 1871419 Forbes Rosanna TOUT or TOUTE 1859 transferred to the Industrial School
8(R) 20 January 1872420 Ryde421 Elizabeth Ann PHILLIPS 1857 1931 Admitted first to and discharged from Newcastle in 1869
9(R) 25 May 1872422 Young Bessie Maud DANGAR423 transferred to the Industrial School
10(R) 26 October 1872 Sydney Emmeline Mary PETERS424 1860425
11(R) 18 January 1873426 Sydney427 Jane428 SCHOFIELD or CAULFIELD429 1860430 1875431 Father: Joseph CAULFIELD; Mother: Catherine FITZPATRICK
12(R) 18 January 1873432 Sydney433 Caroline WALL434 or HALL435 1863436
13(R) 18 January 1873437 Sydney438 Elizabeth SUMMERS 1862439
14(R) 29 January 1873 Wallabadah440 Susan JOHANNES
15(R) 17 May 1873441 Sydney Kate GALLEN or GOLLUN442 1859
16(R) 24 November 1873443 Sydney444 Mary Ann or Mary Jane ALLISON 1863 Mother: Bridget445
17(R) 1 December 1873446 Armidale Mary Ann Elizabeth SWAN
18(R) 30 January 1874447 Sydney448 Annie HARRISON Mother: Margaret HARRISON
19(R) 25 April 1874449 Sydney450 Matilda MORRISON 1861451
20(R) 4 July 1874452 Wagga Wagga Mary THOMPSON c. 1861
21(R) 29 September 1874453 Sydney Mary Jane or Mary Ann HOLTEN454 aka COLE455 Mother alive 1874
22(R) 13 October 1874456 Sydney Elizabeth HOWIE457 1860
23(R) 16 November 1874458 Sydney Harriet SCHOFIELD or SCHOEFIELD459 1862
24(R) 24 November 1874460 Sydney Mary Jane SCORES461 1861
25(R) 19 January 1875462 Sydney Mary RYAN463 1860
26(R) 24 December 1875464 Sydney Sarah WATT465 1860466
27(R) 24 August 1876467 Sydney Bertha BECKE or BECK468 1862
28(R) 24 August 1876469 Sydney Edith DATSON 1863
29(R) 24 August 1876470 Sydney Annie or Hannah471 WALSH 1861 Father alive 1876
30(R) c. 1878472 Sydney Julietta aka Julia ANSELINE c. 1864 aft. 1888 Father: Jules ANSELINE; Mother: Mary MORRIS; absconded from industrial school apprenticeship and sent to Reformatory
31(R) abt. January 1879 Inverell473 Elizabeth Dora ALLEN c. 1864
32(R) 16 June 1879474 Sydney Margaret VANNAN c. 1865 Father: William; Mother: Catherine (See also: CSIL: 80/3460 [1/2482])
33(R) abt. November 1879 Inverell475 Eliza Ann BURNS c. 1867

Shaftesbury Reformatory Admissions

On 5 February 1880 the premises on Cockatoo Island ceased to be a Reformatory School and the Shaftesbury Reformatory for Females at Watson's Bay was proclaimed. The cottage style premises were intended to house forty to fifty girls. Girls were sentenced to the reformatory for periods of one to five years.
The numbers actually housed here were small often numbering fewer than 20. 13 girls were in residence in 1900 when the State Children Relief Board took control of Shaftesbury. The Board then placed 25 female State wards (either invalids or girls who were unsuitable to apprentice as domestic servants) into the home in addition to the girls under sentence.
Shaftesbury closed in March 1904 and the girls were boarded-out. On 12 April 1904 the Shaftesbury ceased to be a reformatory school and a portion of the Central Depot for the State children at "Ormond House", Paddington was proclaimed a Reformatory School for Females. The girls under sentence were transferred to Ormond House in 1905.476

Shaftesbury remained under the superintendency of Agnes KING. Admissions to the reformatory were not identified in any Industrial School records and only one admission register dating from 1888 survives.477 Girls admitted before 1888 are identified below. Newspaper reports or entries in the NSW Police Gazette have been used to identify girls admitted to the Reformatory after February 1880.

Tried Location Given Surname, variation or alias Born Died Remarks
33(R) abt. August 1880 Goulburn478 Louisa BULLOCK 1866
34(R) 23 August 1880 Newtown479 Mary Jane TAYLOR 1866
35(R) abt. November 1880 Sydney480 Agnes MARSHALL 1866
36(R) 30 December 1880 Sydney481 Elizabeth WATSON 1868 father dead; mother alive
37(R) 30 December 1880 Sydney482 Ann CALLISTER 1871 parents in Surry Hills
38(R) 8 March 1881 Newcastle483 Joanna SMITH 1867 mother in Newcastle
39(R) 22 March 1881 Sydney484 Alice ASHPLANT 1868485 alias Emily McINTOSH
40(R) 6 June 1881 Newtown486 Rebecca NOBBS 1868 illegitimate; Mother: Lucy487
41(R) 20 June 1881 Albury488 Margaret MULLENS c. 1868 father dead; mother remarried
42(R) abt. August 1881489 Greta490 Alice BAKER 1874
43(R) 18 August 1881 Sydney491 Helena KINGER 1869 alias CROTTY
44(R) 18 August 1881 Sydney492 Rosanna BOURKE 1871
45(R) 30 September 1881493 Glen Innes494 Sarah Jane CLARKE 1868495
46(R) 6 December 1881 Windsor496 Matilda BARTON Father: William
47(R) 4 January 1882 Sydney497 Alice JAMIESON 1869498 Sister: Agnes
48(R) 5 January 1882 Goulburn499 Maud Jane aka Mary Jane LAMB Mother: Mary; father in gaol; Sister: Violet May500
49(R) c. March 1882 Temora501 Emily502 JACKSON c. 1868 parents alive; sister in Young gaol
50(R) 4 April 1882 Echuca503 Matilda HUBBARD parents dead; cousin Mr FRISWELL
51(R) 5 May 1882 Sydney504 Elizabeth McKINLAY 1868 mother alive
52(R) 8 May 1882 Newtown505 Emily J. MILLER 1868 grandmother alive506
53(R) 26 June 1882 Newtown507 Elizabeth FERRY 1868
54(R) abt. August 1882 Orange508 unknown Unnamed 1870 Chinese half-caste509
55(R) 4 November 1882 Newtown510 Amy GRIMBLE 1867 alias NEAREN
56(R) 14 December 1882; readmitted to Shaftesbury May 1887511 Wollongong512 Harriett WELLER aka ELLIS 1871 Adoptive Father: John WELLER
57(R) c. 2 January 1883 Windsor513 Mary TURNER 1868
58(R) abt. 1883514 unknown Sarah Jane BUTLER 1868
59(R) 31 January 1883 Newtown515 Alice LENTON 1869 Stepfather: Henry LENTON516
60(R) abt. June 1883 Yass517 Eliza aka Elizabeth COOPER 1869518 mother and brother living
61(R) abt. June 1883 Cowra unknown McGREGOR 1869519
62(R) abt. July 1883 Forbes Mary DREW alias SCOLLIOSS 1874520
63(R) bef. January 1884 Goulburn521 Jane aka Emily Jane LONG 1870522 Father: Peter; Mother: Mary Ann
64(R) 2 January 1884 East Maitland523 Annie BROWN 1873 father dead; mother remarried
65(R) 17 April 1884 Goulburn524 Ada MULLALLY 1868 father in Melbourne; mother dead
66(R) 18 April 1884 Redfern525 Dana JOHNSON 1870
67(R) abt. May 1884 Tamworth526 Hannah GUTHERIE
68(R) 1 August 1884 Goulburn527 Rebecca CARTER 1869528 Mother living; father thousands of miles away
69(R) 22 January 1885 Sydney529 Christina AIRD Parents living
70(R) 24 June 1885 Redfern530 Esther ROSEVEAR 1870
71(R) 9 December 1885 Balmain531 Isabella Horn532 HAWTHORNE 1874 Adoptive father: Robert CHISHOLM
72(R) 19 December 1885 Goulburn533 Kate GRONO 1871
73(R) 20 April 1886534 Sydney535 Lily or Lilly FOREST 1870 Father living
74(R) 23 June 1886 Redfern536 Blanche DOUGLAS 1871
75(R) abt. 6 June 1886 Bathurst537 Ellen RALSTON 1871
76(R) 6 October 1886 Goulburn538 Emily McNEICE 1873539 1909540 Mother: Annie McNEICE; Aunts: Eliza, Sarah and Mary McNEICE admitted to Newcastle
77(R) bef. November 1886541 unknown Sarah DEMPSEY c. 1873
78(R) 19 November 1886542 Yass Emily CROUCH 1872
79(R) 19 November 1886543 Redfern Phyllis FRATER 1872
80(R) 20 January 1887544 Redfern Ada BOOTH 1875 Grandmother: Caroline BOOTH
81(R) bef. February 1887 Sydney Julia McKEON 1878 Father: Joseph; Mother: Maria; admitted to Parramatta in February 1888545
82(R) abt. February 1887 Sydney546 Mabel HELLER
83(R) 20 April 1887547 Redfern Jessie GIFFEN 1873
84(R) 12 May 1887548 Sydney Mary Jane KERRIGAN 1872
85(R) 15 May 1887549 Sydney Harriett ELLIS 1872
86(R) 17 May 1887550 Sydney Mary Jane HOGAN 1872
87(R) 8 September 1887551 Redfern Jane ROSKELLY aka ROSS KELLY 1875 Father: John ROSS KELLY; mother died seven months earlier; Brother: John; three siblings
88(R) 30 September 1887552 Sydney Lena JONES
89(R) 30 December 1887553 Sydney Elizabeth Ann GRIEVES

Updated September 2017

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