Biloela

Biloela on Cockatoo Island, Sydney Harbour was the second of the locations of the Industrial Schools for Girls. The location of the school was in the premises of the men's prison, formerly known as Cockatoo Island, that had been renamed, presumably to make it appear a more palatable place for keeping young girls.

BIL-OE-LA (pronounced Billowy la), the name of the new establishment provided by the Government for the girls recently removed from Newcastle, has excited some curiosity in regard to its derivation. It is an aboriginal word, meaning "cockatoo," as will be found by reference to the Hon. W. Ridley's book on Kamilaroi. The name Biloela is not given to the whole of the island, but only to the Industrial School premises. The name of the island has already been changed once. Some years ago it was called Banks' Island, in honour of Sir Joseph Banks. Since the removal of the girls to their new school – where they are entirely removed from encouragement by the plaudits of inconsiderate and vicious persons – it is said that there has been more effective discipline.1

The area of the school was defined in the Government Gazette on 26 May 1871, as

… the Western portion of the Island within the following boundaries: – Commencing on the southern margin of the Island, at about 57 feet easterly from the eastern Lime-kiln – and bounded thence on the east by a line bearing about north 10½ degrees east about 278 feet to the southern corner of the enclosure, northerly of the covered tank ; thence by the south-western boundary-wall of that enclosure, north-westerly about 118 feet ; thence by a line south-westerly at right angles to that boundary about 25 feet ; and thence by a line bearing about north 32 degrees west 240 feet to the northern margin of the Island, and on the north-west, on the west and on the south, by the waters of Port Jackson, south-westerly, southerly and easterly to the point of commencement.2

16150386993_7ab41043be_o.jpg

Biloela (1876)
Image courtesy of Trove - Digitalized Newspapers
The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912)3

BILOELA.
… [The] view of Biloela from the mainland near Birchgrove … shows the south-eastern side of the island, where are situated the Fitzroy Dock Works. The place for years bore the name of Cockatoo Island, but when the Crown prisoners were removed from it, and the establishment was made use of as a female reformatory and industrial school, it received the more euphonious aboriginal designation, "Biloela." In the foreground of the picture is part of Birchgrove. In the background beyond Biloela appear the highlands at the entrance to Lane Cove. To the left are the western extremity of Spectacle Island (now used as a gunpowder depot) and Pulpit Point. Biloela Island is about a quarter of a mile in length. The magnificent dock works, constructed in the solid rock, were effected almost exclusively by the use of prison labour. The dock is 400 feet long with 20 feet depth of water over the sill. The Galatea, of over 3600 tons burden, was taken in without the slightest difficulty.4

The planning to transfer the girls was almost certainly finalised between 18 April 1871, when CLARKE handed over the school to LUCAS, and 26 May when this new superintendency was proclaimed by the Governor, Somerset Richard, Earl of Belmore. The 26th was the day when the younger girls were actually transferred from Newcastle to Sydney aboard the Morpeth.5 The elder 'more refractory' girls left Newcastle on the Government steamer, Thetis, the following day.6 Girls who were tried in Sydney7 during May or country NSW8 during late April, were retained in Sydney and never reached the Newcastle site.9

The decision to remove the girls from Newcastle was made partly in response to the proximity of the school to residences, the ease of escape and the wild behaviour of the girls on the easily observable site. The major reason for Newcastle's closure was unstated but was almost certainly economic.10 By placing the girls on the island in the old Biloela gaol buildings, it was hoped that these problems would be reduced or eliminated. This was true only in regard to the cost savings of locating the school near Sydney and to the isolation of the site. That Cockatoo Island was an unwise location for the welfare of the girls was apparent to members of the media and possibly many others at the time and criticism of the government's wisdom in making this decision began shortly after the relocation.

NO YOU DONT!11
'From the Sydney Punch'
In Sydney Harbor thar's an isle,
A place that's dull and drear,
With nary tree upon its sile –
It looks pertickler queer ;
It ain't at all the sort of isle
Whar lovers bill and coo –
Its character is raly vile –
Folks call it " Cockatoo."
As Cockatoo its known to Fame –
Known also to each Peeler,
But lately they hev changed its name
An' called it " Biloela."
It's now the home of rowdy gals –
A naughty sister-hood –
Who, 'prison'd on thet rocky isle,
Air larnin' to be good !
But 'taint no use – they'll never larn –
Those gals air reg'lar squalers,
An' horrid yarns the folks du tell
About them Biloelas.
They scream, and roar, and tear their clothes
An cuss an' swear a few –
Why Biloela's ten times wuss
Than was old Cockatoo!
On that thar isle thar is a dock,
Whar ships of war repair ;
Hard by them virgins under lock
The dry dock still is there !
The wisdom of some public men,
In that is clearly shown ;
Them chaps should have their praises cut
In Biloela stone! …12

The site was badly chosen as it had difficult access and a shortage of fresh water. Visiting clergy who came often and with ease to Newcastle were required to travel to the island and while sisters from the House of the Good Shepherd ministered religious education to the Catholic girls, the teacher, Margaret KELLY became responsible for the Protestants. Attacks were made on the buildings by visiting sailors arriving at the nearby Fitzroy Dock. Riots amongst the inmates still occurred and successful escapes were made from the island. Frequently small boats and dingys containing men cruised around the island. Any girls who were observed to be conversing with these men were locked in one of the dormitories. The time for their confinement varied but 'for the remainder of the day' was one such imprisonment.13 One instance of the male offenders being referred to court was reported to the Colonial Secretary by LUCAS on 18 October 1871,14 but this court case has not yet been found. The isolated nature of the school from public scrutiny was not good for the inmates.

Biloela Industrial School Admissions

Because the first admissions to Biloela are located in the missing pages of the Entrance Book,15 girls who were identified as having been admitted to Cockatoo Island during this period have been recorded below. Many trial locations are unidentified and it has not always been possible to identify an exact admission date but an attempt has been made to place the admissions in an approximate chronological order. Their names have been sourced from LUCAS's April 1872 list16 and supplemented by mentions in the superintendent's weekly reports from the CSIL. Each weekly report may only name one girl. It was possible to match young admissions and later arrivals by cross-referencing their names in the Child Welfare Index.17 If only a discharge record from the Biloela Discharge Register is identified on this index then that inmate had to have been recorded in the Entrance Book during the period when the pages were missing. Unfortunately, any older inmate admitted before or during 1875 may have been discharged before the Discharge Register was commenced. Individual letters in the CSIL index that specified Biloela as a location were also identified.18 The Police Gazettes and Trove also reported some court locations or admissions.

The list below contains the names of the missing 157 Biloela admissions. Variations in spelling and handwriting have resulted in at least two duplications that are still being identified. Of these admissions seven were those of young boys under the age of 8 years who were eventually transferred from Biloela – usually onto the nearby Vernon. Names of boys have been recorded in bold to enable them to be identified easily on the list. Of the final eleven admissions whose family details appear on the first page after the missing section of the Entrance Book, almost all have been identified and matched to their family details. The list is amended as further details are uncovered.

It is not the intention to investigate the lives or circumstances of the Biloela inmates unless they were the sisters of girls who were admitted to Newcastle. If you believe that you are connected to any of these girls or would like to further investigate their lives, please contact me and it can be arranged for you to contribute what you can uncover of their story in their own biography on this site.

Tried Location Given Surname, variation or alias Born Died Remarks
188 April 187119 Hay Catherine Amy aka Catherine Emma20 aka Emma21 MULLENS 186522 Father: William; Mother: Catherine23
189 9 May 1871 Sydney Elizabeth BADCOCK aka KING c.1856 aft.1871 Mother: Mary HEARSEY or THURSEY24
190 11 May 187125 readmitted 21 January 187326 Sydney Mary Ann WILLIAMS Aunt: Mrs LODGE27
191 13 June 187128 Sydney Caroline BLENMAN 185429 193730 Father: Thomas BLENMAN; Mother: Margaret MANSFIELD
192 6 July 187131 Newcastle Alice or Amy aka Lily Alice ZANONI aka HORROCKS 186832 195233 Father: Vincent ZANONI; Mother: Eleanor TOTTEN; Brother: Albert Amado to the Vernon
193 6 July 187134 Newcastle Ellena aka Lena Ellen ZANONI aka HORROCKS 186635 195236 Father: Vincent ZANONI; Mother: Eleanor TOTTEN; Brother: Albert Amado to the Vernon
194 14 August 187137 Sydney Sarah BURKE or BOURKE c.1854 188838
195 22 November 187139 Sydney Elizabeth DONOHOE or DONOHUE 185640
196 28 November 187141 Sydney Elizabeth or Eliza BURNS42 aka BROWN
197 12 January 187243 Grenfell Jane DAVIS 1858 Mother: Mary Ann DAVIS; Brother-in-law: Mr ALLSOP44
198 25 January 187245 Sydney Elizabeth LEACH
199 6 February 1872; readmitted March 1875 Gosford Eliza MILES46 or MYLES c.185847 Father alive 1875; Father: William; Mother: Margaret
200 20 February 187248 Sydney Janet BOYD49 185950 Father: John; Mother: Janet; parents alive 1872
201 28 February 1872 Annie DOOLEY or DARLEY51
202 2 March 187252 Sydney Theresa WAGONER 1857
203 4 March 1872 Newcastle53 Clare or Clara ANDREWS or ANDREW c.186154 Father: John; Mother: Ellen
204 4 March 187255 Sydney Annie BUCKLEY
205 2 March 187256 Sydney Elizabeth SHARKEY57 1857
206 16 March 1872 Newcastle58 Mary HORNBACK 186959 Location of father unknown: mother (a coloured woman)60 in gaol
207 2 April 187261 Sydney Rosanna TOUT or TOUTE 1859 transferred from the Reformatory
c.20862 13 March 187263 Cooma Ann RODHAM or RODDAM 185864 father alive 1872
c.209 c. May 1872 Margaret CHATTEY65
c.210 27 June 187266 Young67 Bessie Maud68 DANGAR69 185870 Father: James HEYWARD; Mother: Mary Eliza DANGAR; Step-father: Thomas WEST;71 transferred from the Reformatory
c.211 6 July 1872 Albury72 Marian SMITH73
c.212 6 August 1872 Tamworth74 Ellen LEWIS c. 186275 Sister: Kate
c.213 6 August 1872 Tamworth76 Kate LEWIS Sister: Ellen
c.214 15 August 187277 Maitland Elizabeth EDDINGTON
c.215 c. May 1872 Cargo78 Leah EMANUEL 186779 Mother: Kate (alive 1872)
c.216 22 August 187280 Sydney Louisa WINTER aka WILSON 1859 1890 First admission was to Newcastle Reformatory
c.217 29 August 1872 Araluen Jane HAND 185681 discharged to the Newcastle Asylum, November 187282
c.218 17 October 187283 Sydney Sarah84 LITTLEWOOD85 1859 Mother: Johanna aka Hannah LITTLEWOOD86
c.219 17 November 1872 Dubbo 'Louisa' surname unknown87 c. 186888
c.220 c. November 187289 Mudgee Lizzie aka Elizabeth THOMASLIN 1858 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah90
c.221 c. November 187291 Mudgee Lucy THOMASLIN 1861 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah92
c.222 c. November 187293 Mudgee Margaret THOMASLIN94 1865 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah95
c.223 c. November 187296 Mudgee Joseph THOMASLIN (M) 1869 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah;97 Sisters: Margaret, Lizzy and Lucy; transferred to Sydney Benevolent Asylum 15 November 1872, then to Randwick Asylum 17 January 1876.
c.224 23 November 187298 Sydney Sarah Ann BROWN 185899 parents alive 1872
c.225 7 December 1872100 Wagga Wagga Eliza COOKE or COOK or CORK101 1862102
c.226 7 December 1872103 Wagga Wagga Sarah OSBORNE 1860 1874104 Mother: possibly Sarah105 or Father: William and Mother: Eliza J. (born Gundagai)
c.227 9 December 1872 Gulgong106 Agnes LEWIS107 1869108 Father: Samuel; Mother: Agnes; Sister: Elizabeth
c.228 9 December 1872109 Gulgong Elizabeth LEWIS110 1865111 Father: Samuel; Mother: Agnes; Sister: Agnes
c.229 c. 2 December 1872112 Narrabri113 Charlotte ANGUS 1858114 discharged to the Benevolent Asylum, 30 May 1873115
c.230 c. January 1873116 Florence GRAY
c.231 c. January 1873117 Mary Jane THORNTON118 1862 Mother: Margaret;119 alive 1877120
c.232 3 February 1873121 Caroline ATTWELL122 1860123 father: Robert; mother: Mary; sister: Mary124
c.233 3 February 1873125 Gulgong Robert or Henry GARDEM aka GARDENER126 1868127 1940128 Father: Charles aka Rowley (in gaol); Mother: Mary J. McNAMARA (dead);129 Brother: Stephen aka Rowley; transferred to the Vernon November 1874
c.234 3 February 1873 Gulgong Stephen or Rowley GARDNER or GARDEM or GARDEN or GARDENER130 1870131 1950132 Father: Charles aka Rowley (in gaol); Mother: Mary Jane McNAMARA (dead); Brother: Henry aka Robert; transferred to the Vernon 3 February 1877; absconded133
c.235 c. February 1873 Mary Ann LESLIE 1865134 Father: James; Mother: Jane
c.236135 by March 1873136 Ann KING137
c.237138 by March 1873139 Rebecca YOUNG140
c.238 1 March 1873141 Muswellbrook Rebecca142 NEWMAN b. 1869143 Father: William NEWMAN; Mother: Mary
c.239 c. March 1873144 Ellen RICE likely sister: Mrs Jane// DONOVAN145
c.240 c. March 1873;146 readmitted May 1880147 Sarah RICE148 1864149 aft. 1882 likely sister: //Mrs Jane// DONOVAN150
c.241 c. March 1873151 Mary MARCH
c.242 18 March 1873152 Sydney Amelia HASSON or HASSAN or HASSOM
c.243 21 March 1873153 Sydney Sarah Ann YOUNG LING154 1858155 Father: unknown Chinaman156 Mother: Eliza DAVIS; Aunt: Jane DAVIS
c.244 29 March 1873157 Sydney Ellen or Eliza158 TROWELL or TIOWELL or TIMELL159 1861 parents dead by 1873 but grandmother alive
c.245 18 April 1873160 Sydney Eliza161 or Elizabeth162 ROBERTS 1858 Father dead by 1873; Mother: Mary ROBERTS
c.246 3 May 1873163 Wagga Wagga Ellen TOMLINSON b. 1867164 Father: John; Mother: Honorah Ann aka Ann;165 Brother: Walter
c.247 3 May 1873166 Wagga Wagga Walter167 TOMLINSON b. 1872168 Father: John; Mother: Honorah Ann aka Ann;169 Sister: Ellen; Transferred to the //Vernon April 1880 but no admission to the Vernon has been located.
c.248 c. 13 May 1873170 returned from apprenticeship 29 December 1876171 Newcastle Mary JENNINGS 1861172 mother: Mary JENNINGS;173 sister: Sarah admitted to Biloela in 1880
c.249 24 June 1873174 Sydney Ellen SCOURCE 1859175
c.250 14 July 1873176 Parramatta Abigail YOUNG c.1860177
c.251 25 July 1873178 Sydney Fanny BROOKBACK179 aka BROOKBANK or BROOKLAND180 aka TAYLOR 1862181 Mother: Fanny MARSHALL
c.252 30 July 1873182 Goulburn Emma MUNN183 or MANN184 alias SIMMONS or KIMBERLEY185 1860186 Father: George;187 Mother: Ellen; Sister alive188
c.253 31 July 1873189 discharged September 1874190 Sydney Ann aka Annie SMITH 1858 Qld Father alive 1873;191 Mother dead by 1873; Aunt: Ella LIGHT192
c.254 14 August 1873193 Sydney Ellen LEWIS 1859 Mother: Sarah LEWIS; unknown brother194
c.255 16 August 1873195 Sydney Charlotte CALF 1860 1940 Sister: Eliza CALF admitted to Newcastle
c.256 23 August 1873;196 discharged September 1874;197 readmitted May 1875198 Gulgong Emma SMITHSON 1861
c.257 23 August 1873199 Gulgong Eliza aka Ellen GREER
c.258 2 September 1873200 Sydney Mary Ann WILSON c.1860201 Father gone for two years; Mother: alive 1873
c.259 10 September 1873202 Sydney Charlotte203 aka Ellen204 JENKINS205 1858 Mother: Elizabeth FREER
c.260 bef. 14 September206 1873207 Emma GREY
c.261 15 September 1873208 Sydney Kate McINERNEY209 or McQUERNEY or McENEMY210 1860 Parents dead by 1873
c.262 25 September 1873211 Sydney Mary Ann MARSHALL212 1860 Father: John;213 Mother: alive 1873; Sister: Hannah; Brother: Henry James MARSHALL214
c.263 29 September 1873215 Sydney Kate SHEEHAN216 or SKAHIN217 or SKALEND218 or SKEEHAN219 1858 Father dead by 1873; Mother alive 1873; Grandmother: Mrs MAHONEY
c.264 8 October 1873;220 readmitted 13 September 1875221 West Maitland222 Agnes Amelia TAYLOR223 1863224
c.265 27 October 1873225 Jerilderie Catherine Ann JONES discharged March 1876226
c.266 20 November 1873227 Sydney Mary Ann NAUGHTON228 1859 Grandmother: Ellen NAUGHTON
c.267 27 November 1873229 Sydney Margaret BOYLE 1859
c.268 24 December 1873230 Sydney Sarah WATT
c.269 c. 1873231 Annie PINILLE
c.270 c. 1873232 Agnes SHIELDS Father: Henry233
c.271 c. 1873234; readmitted from Gulgong 28 March 1875235 Charlotte HENRY 1864236 Father: James; Mother, Jane; Sister: Mary Ann
c.272 c. 1873237 Mary Ann HENRY 1867238 Father: James; Mother, Jane; Sister: Charlotte
c.273 8 January 1874239 Sydney Mary Ann240 Eliza or Ellen FLETCHER 1859241 Father: Josiah FLETCHER (in Hobart);242 Mother: died around 1863; Sister: Louisa FLETCHER
c.274 13 February 1874243 Braidwood244 Mary AUBYRNE or AUBURN 1867245 unknown Sister: Sarah AUBURN to Newcastle
c.275 16 February 1874246 Sydney Maria Louisa DAWES 1860247
c.276 4 March 1874248 Sydney Jane STANFORD249 1859250
c.277 20 March 1874 Parkes251 Elizabeth TOUT252 1865253 aft. 1881254 Sister: Rosanna TOUT (admission 207)
c.278 20 March 1874 Parkes Thomas TOUT (M) 1869255 Sister: Rosanna and Elizabeth; Brother: Owen, David and William TOUT on the Vernon; transferred to Vernon 16 December 1875256
c.279 20 March 1874 Parkes David TOUT (M) 1872 Sister: Elizabeth and Rosanna TOUT; Brother: Owen, Thomas and William TOUT on the Vernon; transferred to Vernon 16 December 1875257
c.280 c. April 1874258 Maitland Rachel Rebecca BOGAN 1868 Brother: Edward John BOGAN to Vernon
c.281 5 May 1874259 Sydney Mary Jane260 COULTER 1860261
c.282 14 May 1874262 Gulgong Eliza GRAHAM 1860 Father: George GRAHAM; Mother: Bridget; Step-father: John TIGHE263 or TYE
c.283 18 May 1874264 Sydney Emily SOMERS or SUMMERS 1859265
c.284 26 May 1874266 Sydney Agnes CRADDOCK 1858267 1938268 Father: William; Mother: Jane; married 1879269
c.285 1 June 1874270 Sydney Eliza Matilda WARING or WEARING271 1859272 Father: Edwin; Mother: Jemima Maude
c.286 1 July 1874273 Sydney Ann or Annie McCARTHY or McCARTY274 1860 Father: Jeremiah McCARTHY; Mother: Ann McCARTHY
c.287 8 July 1874275 Sydney Elizabeth Maria276 or Eliza MILLS 1859 Mother: Elizabeth MILLS
c.288 14 August 1874277 Singleton278 Alice GARBUTT or GARBET279 1865280 Father: James (in Maitland gaol);281 Mother: Mary H. (absconded)
c.289 14 August 1874282 Singleton283 Minnie aka Mary GARBUTT or GARBET284 1867285
c.290 13 October 1874286 Sydney Maria BRUNTON 1862 Father: Robert BRUNTON
c.291 20 October 1874287 Sydney Annie Maria HARRIS 1867 Sister: Eliza
c.292 20 October 1874288 Sydney Eliza HARRIS 1865 Sister: Annie Maria
c.293 c. 1874289 Sarah McBURNISH
c.294 late 1874290 Catherine HENRY 1871 sister to Charlotte and Mary Ann
c.295 c. 1874291 Mary RUSDEN 1861292
c.296 29 December 1874293 Gulgong Mary Ann INGLIS 1862294 living in Mudgee295
c.297 by 1875296 Lucy LONG
c.298 3 February 1875297 Sydney Annie QUINN 1861 Father: alive 1875; Mother: dead by 1875
c.299 19 February 1875298 Sydney Mary Ann CLIFTON299 1860300 Father: Charles; Mother: Bridget;301 Parents alive 1875
c.300 22 March 1875302 Sydney Ann SULLIVAN303 1861 Father: John; Mother: Mary; Sister: Ellen admitted to Biloela in January 1877304
c.301 24 April 1875305 Sydney306 Margaret NEILL 1861307 Parents died in Victoria; Sister alive
c.302 by May 1875308 Annie Maria JONES 1863309 1880310 Sister: Mary Elizabeth
c.303 by May 1875311 Mary Elizabeth JONES Sister: Annie Maria
c.304 by August 1875 Minnie LEWIS312 c. 1860313
c.305 c. August 1875314 Braidwood Mary Ann DALE Step-mother: Ann Elizabeth DALE
c.306 28 September 1875315 Gulgong Mary Ann DOGHERTY 1865316
c.307 28 September 1875317 Gulgong Martha Jane DOGHERTY c.1862318
c.308 4 October 1875319 Braidwood320 tried Araluen321 Priscilla NEWMAN 1859322 Father: Thomas; Mother: Priscilla
c.309 18 October 1875323 Sydney324 Ellen Barbara325 MOORE 1864 Father: Willis MOORE;326 'a coloured girl'327
c.310 by October 1875328 Sydney Mary NUTHERCUTT, NETHERCUT or LEATHERCOURT 1858 Father: John NUTHERCUTT; Mother: Ellen
c.311 29 October 1875329 Sydney Louisa LEWIS330 or LOUIS331 1865
c.312 24 November 1875332 Deniliquin333 Catherine PERRYMAN 1869 Father: Henry PERRYMAN; Mother: Catherine; Brothers: Robert, Henry, John334
c.313 c. 22 December 1875335 Goulburn Kate336 COUGHLAN 1862 1938 Sister: Mary Ann COUGHLAN admitted to Newcastle
c.314 by 1875337 Maud SMITH c.1867338
c.315 by 1875339 Maria McGUIRK 1858
c.316 by 1875340 Violet Mabel PALMER b.c. 1868341
c.317 by February 1876342 Bathurst Charlotte TOOHEY343 aka SAUNDERS 1860344 In gaol 1875345
c.318 about February 1876346 William HORSFALL 1874347 discharged to his mother March 1877
c.319 by March 1876348 Ellen WILSON349 c.1865350
c.320 9 March 1876351 Sydney352 Alicia353 HARRISON 1861 Father: William HARRISON; parents divorced354
c.321 18 March 1876355 Sydney Sarah KELLY c. 1868356 brothers: Timothy and Thomas to Vernon
c.322 25 March 1876357 Harriett GANE 1861358 Father alive 1876; Mother: Theresa GANE
c.323 28 March 1876359 Gulgong Ann PEARSON360
c.324 29 March 1876361 Rockley Mary Ann McFEE c. 1863362
c.325 by July 1876363 29 April 1876364 Bathurst Sarah Ann BRYANT 1864 Father: possibly Thomas; Mother: dead by 1876; Step-sister: possibly Charlotte YOW365)
c.326 by July 1876366 Ann LAMBERT Father: possibly Thomas; Mother: Ann; possibly sister to Louise LAMBERT admitted 1877
c.327 by July 1876367 Laura LUNNISS or LUNNINS c.1862368
c.328 c. 1876 Mary FITZSIMONS369 c.1873370
c.329
c.330
c.331
c.332
c.333
334 5 July 1876371 Sydney Rose SCOTT372 Father: Thomas SCOTT;373
335 19 July 1876374 Sydney Eliza Jane WILLIS 1860375 1876376 Father: William WILLIS;377 Mother: alive 1876
336 c. 9 August 1876378 Gulgong Melinda KEOGH379 c. 1863380 Father alive 1876; Mother in gaol381
337 14 August 1876382 Sydney Mary383 or Eliza384 LANE 1861 Father: John LANE; Mother: Catherine nee unknown385
338 c. 26 August 1876386 Albury Elizabeth HANNA or HEANE387 c.1874388 Father a Chinaman; Mother: Margaret BAILEY in Melbourne
339 c. 15 September 1876 Bathurst389 Mary Ann TYSON390 c. 1871391 Father: Frederick TYSON a cripple [unclear] [unclear] in infirmary since about March last;392 Mother: Mary Ann TYSON393
340 c. 15 September 1876394 Bathurst395 Charlotte TYSON b.c. 1863396 Father: Frederick; Mother: Mary Ann
341 20 September 1876397 Sydney Emma BLAKE 1861398 father in Redfern separated from wife; Father: William; Mother: Catherine; probably admission 341 and either the sister of or cousin of Sarah Jane BLAKE admitted to Newcastle
342 18 October 1876399 Ten Mile Creek Jenny DAVIS c.1870400 Parents alive; grandmother alive
343 18 October 1876401 Parkes Julietta aka Julia ANSELINE c. 1864402 aft. 1888 father dead; Father: Jules ANSELINE; mother in Forbes gaol for sly grog selling; Mother: Mary ANSELINE403 alias MORRIS;404 Sister: Emily; Brothers: Everis and Alfred to Vernon
344 18 October 1876 Parkes Emily ANSELINE405 1869406 1938407 father dead; Father: Jules ANSELINE; mother in Forbes gaol for sly grog selling; Mother: Mary MORRIS; Sister: Julietta aka Julia; Brothers: Everis and Alfred to Vernon
345408 6 November 1876409 Deniliquin Emmaline FEATHERSTONE410 1871 Father: Charles FEATHERSTONE; mother dead by 1876

Biloela Reformatory Admissions

No record for any Reformatory admissions to Newcastle or Biloela has yet been found. Girls known to have been admitted to the Reformatory do not appear in any records for the Industrial School. One incomplete list naming the inmates in Newcastle411 and those admitted to Biloela by August 1874 exists.412 Newspaper reports or entries in the NSW Police Gazette have been used to tentatively identify girls admitted to the Reformatory after August 1874. In September 1875 there were nine inmates413 and by December 1876 there were fourteen girls in the Biloela Reformatory.414

Tried Location Given Surname, variation or alias Born Died Remarks
6(R) 6 June 1871 Newcastle415 Louisa BELLINGHAM or BILLINGHAM c.1860 1925
7(R) 1 December 1871416 Forbes Rosanna TOUT or TOUTE 1859 transferred to the Industrial School
8(R) 20 January 1872417 Ryde418 Elizabeth Ann PHILLIPS 1857 1931 Admitted first to and discharged from Newcastle in 1869
9(R) 25 May 1872419 Young Bessie Maud DANGAR420 transferred to the Industrial School
10(R) 26 October 1872 Sydney Emmeline Mary PETERS421 1860422
11(R) 18 January 1873423 Sydney424 Jane425 SCHOFIELD or CAULFIELD426 1860427 1875428 Father: Joseph CAULFIELD; Mother: Catherine FITZPATRICK
12(R) 18 January 1873429 Sydney430 Caroline WALL431 or HALL432 1863433
13(R) 18 January 1873434 Sydney435 Elizabeth SUMMERS 1862436
14(R) 29 January 1873 Wallabadah437 Susan JOHANNES
15(R) 17 May 1873438 Sydney Kate GALLEN or GOLLUN439 1859
16(R) 24 November 1873440 Sydney441 Mary Ann or Mary Jane ALLISON 1863 Mother: Bridget442
17(R) 1 December 1873443 Armidale Mary Ann Elizabeth SWAN
18(R) 30 January 1874444 Sydney445 Annie HARRISON Mother: Margaret HARRISON
19(R) 25 April 1874446 Sydney447 Matilda MORRISON 1861448
20(R) 4 July 1874449 Wagga Wagga Mary THOMPSON c. 1861
21(R) 29 September 1874450 Sydney Mary Jane or Mary Ann HOLTEN451 aka COLE452 Mother alive 1874
22(R) 13 October 1874453 Sydney Elizabeth HOWIE454 1860
23(R) 16 November 1874455 Sydney Harriet SCHOFIELD or SCHOEFIELD456 1862
24(R) 24 November 1874457 Sydney Mary Jane SCORES458 1861
25(R) 19 January 1875459 Sydney Mary RYAN460 1860
26(R) 24 December 1875461 Sydney Sarah WATT462 1860463
27(R) 24 August 1876464 Sydney Bertha BECKE or BECK465 1862
28(R) 24 August 1876466 Sydney Edith DATSON 1863
29(R) 24 August 1876467 Sydney Annie or Hannah468 WALSH 1861 Father alive 1876
30(R) c. 1878469 Sydney Julietta aka Julia ANSELINE c. 1864 aft. 1888 Father: Jules ANSELINE; Mother: Mary MORRIS; absconded from industrial school apprenticeship and sent to Reformatory
31(R) abt. January 1879 Inverell470 Elizabeth Dora ALLEN c. 1864
32(R) 16 June 1879471 Sydney Margaret VANNAN c. 1865 Father: William; Mother: Catherine (See also: CSIL: 80/3460 [1/2482])
33(R) abt. November 1879 Inverell472 Eliza Ann BURNS c. 1867

Shaftesbury Reformatory Admissions

On 5 February 1880 the premises on Cockatoo Island ceased to be a Reformatory School and the Shaftesbury Reformatory for Females at Watson's Bay was proclaimed. The cottage style premises were intended to house forty to fifty girls. Girls were sentenced to the reformatory for periods of one to five years.
The numbers actually housed here were small often numbering fewer than 20. 13 girls were in residence in 1900 when the State Children Relief Board took control of Shaftesbury. The Board then placed 25 female State wards (either invalids or girls who were unsuitable to apprentice as domestic servants) into the home in addition to the girls under sentence.
Shaftesbury closed in March 1904 and the girls were boarded-out. On 12 April 1904 the Shaftesbury ceased to be a reformatory school and a portion of the Central Depot for the State children at "Ormond House", Paddington was proclaimed a Reformatory School for Females. The girls under sentence were transferred to Ormond House in 1905.473

Shaftesbury remained under the superintendency of Agnes KING. Admissions to the reformatory were not identified in any Industrial School records and only one admission register dating from 1888 survives.474 Girls admitted before 1888 are identified below. Newspaper reports or entries in the NSW Police Gazette have been used to identify girls admitted to the Reformatory after February 1880.

Tried Location Given Surname, variation or alias Born Died Remarks
33(R) abt. August 1880 Goulburn475 Louisa BULLOCK 1866
34(R) 23 August 1880 Newtown476 Mary Jane TAYLOR 1866
35(R) abt. November 1880 Sydney477 Agnes MARSHALL 1866
36(R) 30 December 1880 Sydney478 Elizabeth WATSON 1868 father dead; mother alive
37(R) 30 December 1880 Sydney479 Ann CALLISTER 1871 parents in Surry Hills
38(R) 8 March 1881 Newcastle480 Joanna SMITH 1867 mother in Newcastle
39(R) 22 March 1881 Sydney481 Alice ASHPLANT 1868482 alias Emily McINTOSH
40(R) 6 June 1881 Newtown483 Rebecca NOBBS 1868 illegitimate; Mother: Lucy484
41(R) 20 June 1881 Albury485 Margaret MULLENS c. 1868 father dead; mother remarried
42(R) abt. August 1881486 Greta487 Alice BAKER 1874
43(R) 18 August 1881 Sydney488 Helena KINGER 1869 alias CROTTY
44(R) 18 August 1881 Sydney489 Rosanna BOURKE 1871
45(R) 30 September 1881490 Glen Innes491 Sarah Jane CLARKE 1868492
46(R) 6 December 1881 Windsor493 Matilda BARTON Father: William
47(R) 4 January 1882 Sydney494 Alice JAMIESON 1869495 Sister: Agnes
48(R) 5 January 1882 Goulburn496 Maud Jane aka Mary Jane LAMB Mother: Mary; father in gaol; Sister: Violet May497
49(R) c. March 1882 Temora498 Emily499 JACKSON c. 1868 parents alive; sister in Young gaol
50(R) 4 April 1882 Echuca500 Matilda HUBBARD parents dead; cousin Mr FRISWELL
51(R) 5 May 1882 Sydney501 Elizabeth McKINLAY 1868 mother alive
52(R) 8 May 1882 Newtown502 Emily J. MILLER 1868 grandmother alive503
53(R) 26 June 1882 Newtown504 Elizabeth FERRY 1868
54(R) abt. August 1882 Orange505 unknown Unnamed 1870 Chinese half-caste506
55(R) 4 November 1882 Newtown507 Amy GRIMBLE 1867 alias NEAREN
56(R) 14 December 1882; readmitted to Shaftesbury May 1887508 Wollongong509 Harriett WELLER aka ELLIS 1871 Adoptive Father: John WELLER
57(R) c. 2 January 1883 Windsor510 Mary TURNER 1868
58(R) abt. 1883511 unknown Sarah Jane BUTLER 1868
59(R) 31 January 1883 Newtown512 Alice LENTON 1869 Stepfather: Henry LENTON513
60(R) abt. June 1883 Yass514 Eliza aka Elizabeth COOPER 1869515 mother and brother living
61(R) abt. June 1883 Cowra unknown McGREGOR 1869516
62(R) abt. July 1883 Forbes Mary DREW alias SCOLLIOSS 1874517
63(R) bef. January 1884 Goulburn518 Jane aka Emily Jane LONG 1870519 Father: Peter; Mother: Mary Ann
64(R) 2 January 1884 East Maitland520 Annie BROWN 1873 father dead; mother remarried
65(R) 17 April 1884 Goulburn521 Ada MULLALLY 1868 father in Melbourne; mother dead
66(R) 18 April 1884 Redfern522 Dana JOHNSON 1870
67(R) abt. May 1884 Tamworth523 Hannah GUTHERIE
68(R) 1 August 1884 Goulburn524 Rebecca CARTER 1869525 Mother living; father thousands of miles away
69(R) 22 January 1885 Sydney526 Christina AIRD Parents living
70(R) 24 June 1885 Redfern527 Esther ROSEVEAR 1870
71(R) 9 December 1885 Balmain528 Isabella Horn529 HAWTHORNE 1874 Adoptive father: Robert CHISHOLM
72(R) 19 December 1885 Goulburn530 Kate GRONO 1871
73(R) 20 April 1886531 Sydney532 Lily or Lilly FOREST 1870 Father living
74(R) 23 June 1886 Redfern533 Blanche DOUGLAS 1871
75(R) abt. 6 June 1886 Bathurst534 Ellen RALSTON 1871
76(R) 6 October 1886 Goulburn535 Emily McNEICE 1873536 1909537 Mother: Annie McNEICE; Aunts: Eliza, Sarah and Mary McNEICE admitted to Newcastle
77(R) bef. November 1886538 unknown Sarah DEMPSEY c. 1873
78(R) 19 November 1886539 Yass Emily CROUCH 1872
79(R) 19 November 1886540 Redfern Phyllis FRATER 1872
80(R) 20 January 1887541 Redfern Ada BOOTH 1875 Grandmother: Caroline BOOTH
81(R) bef. February 1887 Sydney Julia McKEON 1878 Father: Joseph; Mother: Maria; admitted to Parramatta in February 1888542
82(R) abt. February 1887 Sydney543 Mabel HELLER
83(R) 20 April 1887544 Redfern Jessie GIFFEN 1873
84(R) 12 May 1887545 Sydney Mary Jane KERRIGAN 1872
85(R) 15 May 1887546 Sydney Harriett ELLIS 1872
86(R) 17 May 1887547 Sydney Mary Jane HOGAN 1872
87(R) 8 September 1887548 Redfern Jane ROSKELLY aka ROSS KELLY 1875 Father: John ROSS KELLY; mother died seven months earlier; Brother: John; three siblings
88(R) 30 September 1887549 Sydney Lena JONES
89(R) 30 December 1887550 Sydney Elizabeth Ann GRIEVES

Updated April 2017

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License