Biloela on Cockatoo Island, Sydney Harbour was the second of the locations of the Industrial Schools for Girls. The location of the school was in the premises of the men's prison, formerly known as Cockatoo Island, that had been renamed, presumably to make it appear a more palatable place for keeping young girls.

BIL-OE-LA (pronounced Billowy la), the name of the new establishment provided by the Government for the girls recently removed from Newcastle, has excited some curiosity in regard to its derivation. It is an aboriginal word, meaning "cockatoo," as will be found by reference to the Hon. W. Ridley's book on Kamilaroi. The name Biloela is not given to the whole of the island, but only to the Industrial School premises. The name of the island has already been changed once. Some years ago it was called Banks' Island, in honour of Sir Joseph Banks. Since the removal of the girls to their new school – where they are entirely removed from encouragement by the plaudits of inconsiderate and vicious persons – it is said that there has been more effective discipline.1

The area of the school was defined in the Government Gazette on 26 May 1871, as

… the Western portion of the Island within the following boundaries: – Commencing on the southern margin of the Island, at about 57 feet easterly from the eastern Lime-kiln – and bounded thence on the east by a line bearing about north 10½ degrees east about 278 feet to the southern corner of the enclosure, northerly of the covered tank ; thence by the south-western boundary-wall of that enclosure, north-westerly about 118 feet ; thence by a line south-westerly at right angles to that boundary about 25 feet ; and thence by a line bearing about north 32 degrees west 240 feet to the northern margin of the Island, and on the north-west, on the west and on the south, by the waters of Port Jackson, south-westerly, southerly and easterly to the point of commencement.2

The Sydney Morning Herald on 10 March 1879, described the location of the Industrial School and explained that:

The part, of the island which is used for the Reformatory and Industrial School is fenced off by a high and ugly corrugated iron fence.
The Industrial School … is held in the stone quadrangle formerly occupied by the convicts. The buildings are kept beautifully clean with paint and whitewash, and they are light and airy; but there is the prison stamp upon them, and at the ends of the dormitories there are the grated windows, where, in the convict days, the sentries were stationed, ready to fire upon the unhappy prisoners in the event of a riot or outbreak occurring in the night. We were told that the girls did not mind these things, and that they actually liked the place. It may be a great improvement upon the squalid homes these poor creatures come from, and they may appreciate it accordingly; still it would be far better to place them in a building of a different character and with associations of a more pleasing nature. There has been made of late a sort of playground

for the children, with swings, and a small shed for wet weather. With this exception there is nothing but the bare rocks and the stone wells for the poor children to see — no trees, no flowers, nothing but gloom.3


Biloela (1876)
Image courtesy of Trove - Digitalized Newspapers
The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912)4

… [The] view of Biloela from the mainland near Birchgrove … shows the south-eastern side of the island, where are situated the Fitzroy Dock Works. The place for years bore the name of Cockatoo Island, but when the Crown prisoners were removed from it, and the establishment was made use of as a female reformatory and industrial school, it received the more euphonious aboriginal designation, "Biloela." In the foreground of the picture is part of Birchgrove. In the background beyond Biloela appear the highlands at the entrance to Lane Cove. To the left are the western extremity of Spectacle Island (now used as a gunpowder depot) and Pulpit Point. Biloela Island is about a quarter of a mile in length. The magnificent dock works, constructed in the solid rock, were effected almost exclusively by the use of prison labour. The dock is 400 feet long with 20 feet depth of water over the sill. The Galatea, of over 3600 tons burden, was taken in without the slightest difficulty.5

The planning to transfer the girls was almost certainly finalised between 18 April 1871, when CLARKE handed over the school to LUCAS, and 26 May when this new superintendency was proclaimed by the Governor, Somerset Richard, Earl of Belmore. The 26th was the day when the younger girls were actually transferred from Newcastle to Sydney aboard the Morpeth.6 The elder 'more refractory' girls left Newcastle on the Government steamer, Thetis, the following day.7 Girls who were tried in Sydney8 during May or country NSW9 during late April, were retained in Sydney and never reached the Newcastle site.10

The decision to remove the girls from Newcastle was made partly in response to the proximity of the school to residences, the ease of escape and the wild behaviour of the girls on the easily observable site. The major reason for Newcastle's closure was unstated but was almost certainly economic.11 By placing the girls on the island in the old Biloela gaol buildings, it was hoped that these problems would be reduced or eliminated. This was true only in regard to the cost savings of locating the school near Sydney and to the isolation of the site. That Cockatoo Island was an unwise location for the welfare of the girls was apparent to members of the media and possibly many others at the time and criticism of the government's wisdom in making this decision began shortly after the relocation.

'From the Sydney Punch'
In Sydney Harbor thar's an isle,
A place that's dull and drear,
With nary tree upon its sile –
It looks pertickler queer ;
It ain't at all the sort of isle
Whar lovers bill and coo –
Its character is raly vile –
Folks call it " Cockatoo."
As Cockatoo its known to Fame –
Known also to each Peeler,
But lately they hev changed its name
An' called it " Biloela."
It's now the home of rowdy gals –
A naughty sister-hood –
Who, 'prison'd on thet rocky isle,
Air larnin' to be good !
But 'taint no use – they'll never larn –
Those gals air reg'lar squalers,
An' horrid yarns the folks du tell
About them Biloelas.
They scream, and roar, and tear their clothes
An cuss an' swear a few –
Why Biloela's ten times wuss
Than was old Cockatoo!
On that thar isle thar is a dock,
Whar ships of war repair ;
Hard by them virgins under lock
The dry dock still is there !
The wisdom of some public men,
In that is clearly shown ;
Them chaps should have their praises cut
In Biloela stone! …13

The site was badly chosen as it had difficult access and a shortage of fresh water. Visiting clergy who came often and with ease to Newcastle were required to travel to the island and while sisters from the House of the Good Shepherd ministered religious education to the Catholic girls, the teacher, Margaret KELLY became responsible for the Protestants. Attacks were made on the buildings by visiting sailors arriving at the nearby Fitzroy Dock. Riots amongst the inmates still occurred and successful escapes were made from the island. Frequently small boats and dingys containing men cruised around the island. Any girls who were observed to be conversing with these men were locked in one of the dormitories. The time for their confinement varied but 'for the remainder of the day' was one such imprisonment.14 One instance of the male offenders being referred to court was reported to the Colonial Secretary by LUCAS on 18 October 1871,15 but this court case has not yet been found. The isolated nature of the school from public scrutiny was not good for the inmates.

Biloela Industrial School Admissions

Because the first admissions to Biloela are located in the missing pages of the Entrance Book,16 girls who were identified as having been admitted to Cockatoo Island during this period have been recorded below. Many trial locations are unidentified and it has not always been possible to identify an exact admission date but an attempt has been made to place the admissions in an approximate chronological order. Their names have been sourced from LUCAS's April 1872 list17 and supplemented by mentions in the superintendent's weekly reports from the CSIL. Each weekly report may only name one girl. It was possible to match young admissions and later arrivals by cross-referencing their names in the Child Welfare Index.18 If only a discharge record from the Biloela Discharge Register is identified on this index then that inmate had to have been recorded in the Entrance Book during the period when the pages were missing. Unfortunately, any older inmate admitted before or during 1875 may have been discharged before the Discharge Register was commenced. Individual letters in the CSIL index that specified Biloela as a location were also identified.19 The Police Gazettes and Trove also reported some court locations or admissions.

The list below contains the names of the missing 157 Biloela admissions. Variations in spelling and handwriting have resulted in at least two duplications that are still being identified. Of these admissions seven were those of young boys under the age of 8 years who were eventually transferred from Biloela – usually onto the nearby Vernon. Names of boys have been recorded in bold to enable them to be identified easily on the list. Of the final eleven admissions whose family details appear on the first page after the missing section of the Entrance Book, almost all have been identified and matched to their family details. The list is amended as further details are uncovered.

It is not the intention to investigate the lives or circumstances of the Biloela inmates unless they were the sisters of girls who were admitted to Newcastle. If you believe that you are connected to any of these girls or would like to further investigate their lives, please contact me and it can be arranged for you to contribute what you can uncover of their story in their own biography on this site.

Tried Location Given Surname, variation or alias Born Died Remarks
188 April 187120 Hay Catherine Amy aka Catherine Emma21 aka Emma22 MULLENS 186523 Father: William; Mother: Catherine24
189 9 May 1871 Sydney Elizabeth BADCOCK aka KING c.1856 aft.1871 Mother: Mary HEARSEY or THURSEY25
190 11 May 187126 readmitted 21 January 187327 Sydney Mary Ann WILLIAMS (3) 1853 aft. 1873 Father: Henry; Mother: Mary; Aunt: Mrs LODGE28
191 13 June 187129 Sydney Caroline BLENMAN 185430 193731 Father: Thomas BLENMAN; Mother: Margaret MANSFIELD
192 6 July 187132 Newcastle Alice or Amy aka Lily Alice ZANONI aka HORROCKS 186833 195234 Father: Vincent ZANONI; Mother: Eleanor TOTTEN; Brother: Albert Amado to the Vernon
193 6 July 187135 Newcastle Ellena aka Lena Ellen ZANONI aka HORROCKS 186636 195237 Father: Vincent ZANONI; Mother: Eleanor TOTTEN; Brother: Albert Amado to the Vernon
194 14 August 187138 Sydney Sarah BURKE or BOURKE c.1854 aft. 1888
195 22 November 187139 Sydney Elizabeth DONOHOE or DONOHUE 185640
196 28 November 187141 Sydney Elizabeth or Eliza BURNS42 aka BROWN
197 12 January 187243 Grenfell44 Jane DAVIS 1858 Mother: Mary Ann DAVIS; Brother-in-law: Mr ALLSOP45
198 25 January 187246 Sydney Elizabeth LEACH
199 6 February 1872; readmitted March 1875 Gosford Eliza MILES47 or MYLES c.185848 Father alive 1875; Father: William; Mother: Margaret
200 20 February 187249 Sydney Janet BOYD50 185951 Father: John; Mother: Janet; parents alive 1872
201 28 February 1872 Annie DOOLEY or DARLEY52
202 2 March 187253 Sydney Theresa WAGONER 1857
203 4 March 1872 Newcastle54 Clare or Clara ANDREWS or ANDREW c.186155 Father: John; Mother: Ellen
204 4 March 187256 Sydney Annie BUCKLEY
205 2 March 187257 Sydney Elizabeth SHARKEY58 1857
206 16 March 1872 Newcastle59 Mary HORNBACK 186960 Location of father unknown: mother (a coloured woman)61 in gaol
207 2 April 187262 Sydney Rosanna TOUT or TOUTE 1859 transferred from the Reformatory
c.20863 13 March 187264 Cooma Ann RODHAM or RODDAM 185865 father alive 1872
c.209 c. May 1872 Margaret CHATTEY66
c.210 27 June 187267 Young68 Bessie Maud69 DANGAR70 185871 Father: James HEYWARD; Mother: Mary Eliza DANGAR; Step-father: Thomas WEST;72 transferred from the Reformatory
c.211 6 July 1872 Albury73 Marian SMITH74
c.212 6 August 1872 Tamworth75 Ellen LEWIS c. 186276 Sister: Kate
c.213 6 August 1872 Tamworth77 Kate LEWIS Sister: Ellen
c.214 15 August 187278 Maitland Elizabeth EDDINGTON 1856 Sister: Emma;79 Married sister80
c.215 22 August 187281 Sydney Louisa WINTER aka WILSON 1859 1890 First admission was to Newcastle Reformatory
c.216 29 August 1872 Araluen Jane HAND 185682 discharged to the Newcastle Asylum, November 187283
c.217 c. September 1872 Cargo84 Leah EMANUEL 186785 Mother: Kate (alive 1872)
c.218 17 October 187286 Sydney Sarah87 LITTLEWOOD88 1859 Mother: Johanna aka Hannah LITTLEWOOD89
c.219 15 November 187290 Mudgee Lizzie aka Elizabeth THOMASLIN 1858 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah91
c.220 15 November 187292 Mudgee Lucy THOMASLIN 1861 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah93
c.221 15 November 187294 Mudgee Margaret THOMASLIN95 1865 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah96
c.222 15 November 187297 Mudgee Joseph THOMASLIN (M) 1869 Father: Joseph; Mother: Sarah;98 Sisters: Margaret, Lizzy and Lucy; transferred to Sydney Benevolent Asylum 15 November 1872, then to Randwick Asylum 17 January 1876.
c.223 17 November 1872 Dubbo Louisa surname unknown99 c. 1868100
c.224 23 November 1872101 Sydney Sarah Ann BROWN 1858102 parents alive 1872
c.225 7 December 1872103 Wagga Wagga Eliza COOKE or COOK or CORK104 1862105
c.226 7 December 1872106 Wagga Wagga Sarah OSBORNE 1860 1874107 Mother: possibly Sarah108 or Father: William and Mother: Eliza J. (born Gundagai)
c.227 9 December 1872 Gulgong109 Agnes LEWIS110 1869111 Father: Samuel; Mother: Agnes; Sister: Elizabeth
c.228 9 December 1872112 Gulgong Elizabeth LEWIS113 1865114 Father: Samuel; Mother: Agnes; Sister: Agnes
c.229 c. 2 December 1872115 Narrabri116 Charlotte ANGUS 1858117 discharged to the Benevolent Asylum, 30 May 1873118
c.230 c. January 1873119 Florence GRAY
c.231 c. January 1873120 Mary Jane THORNTON121 1862 Mother: Margaret;122 alive 1877123
c.232 bef. February 1873124 Mary Jane CARRUTHERS
c.233 3 February 1873125 Caroline ATTWELL126 1860127 father: Robert; mother: Mary; sister: Mary128
c.234 3 February 1873129 Gulgong Robert or Henry GARDEM aka GARDENER130 1868131 1940132 Father: Charles aka Rowley (in gaol); Mother: Mary J. McNAMARA (dead);133 Brother: Stephen aka Rowley; transferred to the Vernon November 1874
c.235 3 February 1873 Gulgong Stephen or Rowley GARDNER or GARDEM or GARDEN or GARDENER134 1870135 1950136 Father: Charles aka Rowley (in gaol); Mother: Mary Jane McNAMARA (dead); Brother: Henry aka Robert; transferred to the Vernon 3 February 1877; absconded137
c.236 c. February 1873 Mary Ann LESLIE 1865138 Father: James; Mother: Jane
c.237139 by March 1873140 Ann KING141
c.238142 by March 1873143 Rebecca YOUNG144
c.239 1 March 1873145 Muswellbrook Rebecca146 NEWMAN b. 1869147 Father: William NEWMAN; Mother: Mary
c.240 c. March 1873148 Ellen RICE likely sister: Mrs Jane// DONOVAN149
c.241 c. March 1873;150 readmitted May 1880151 Sarah RICE152 1864153 aft. 1882 likely sister: //Mrs Jane// DONOVAN154
c.242 c. March 1873155 Mary MARCH
c.243 18 March 1873156 Sydney Amelia HASSON or HASSAN or HASSOM Father: John; Mother: Emma; Sisters: Sarah, Mary Ann and Emma157
c.244 21 March 1873158 Sydney Sarah Ann YOUNG LING159 1858160 Father: unknown Chinaman161 Mother: Eliza DAVIS; Aunt: Jane DAVIS
c.245 29 March 1873162 Sydney Ellen or Eliza163 TROWELL or TIOWELL or TIMELL164 1861 parents dead by 1873 but grandmother alive
c.246 18 April 1873165 Sydney Eliza166 or Elizabeth167 ROBERTS 1858 Father dead by 1873; Mother: Mary ROBERTS
c.247 3 May 1873168 Wagga Wagga Ellen TOMLINSON b. 1867169 Father: John; Mother: Honorah Ann aka Ann;170 Brother: Walter
c.248 3 May 1873171 Wagga Wagga Walter172 TOMLINSON b. 1872173 Father: John; Mother: Honorah Ann aka Ann;174 Sister: Ellen; Transferred to the //Vernon April 1880 but no admission to the Vernon has been located. Transferred to the State Children's Relief Department in 1888.175
c.249 c. 13 May 1873176 returned from apprenticeship 29 December 1876177 Newcastle Mary JENNINGS 1861178 mother: Mary JENNINGS;179 sister: Sarah admitted to Biloela in 1880
c.250 24 June 1873180 Sydney Ellen SCOURCE 1859181
c.251 14 July 1873182 Parramatta Abigail YOUNG c.1860183
c.252 25 July 1873184 Sydney Fanny BROOKBACK185 aka BROOKBANK or BROOKLAND186 aka TAYLOR 1862187 Mother: Fanny MARSHALL
c.253 30 July 1873188 Goulburn Emma MUNN189 or MANN190 alias SIMMONS or KIMBERLEY191 1860192 Father: George;193 Mother: Ellen; Sister alive194
c.254 31 July 1873195 discharged September 1874196 Sydney Ann aka Annie197 SMITH 1858 Qld Father alive 1873;198 Mother dead by 1873; Aunt: Ella LIGHT199
c.255 14 August 1873200 Sydney Ellen LEWIS 1859 Mother: Sarah LEWIS; unknown brother201
c.256 16 August 1873202 Sydney Charlotte CALF 1860 1940 Sister: Eliza CALF admitted to Newcastle
c.257 23 August 1873;203 discharged September 1874;204 readmitted May 1875205 Gulgong Emma SMITHSON 1861
c.258 23 August 1873206 Gulgong Eliza aka Ellen GREER
c.259 2 September 1873207 Sydney Mary Ann WILSON c.1860208 Father gone for two years; Mother: alive 1873
c.260 10 September 1873209 Sydney Charlotte210 aka Ellen211 JENKINS212 1858 Mother: Elizabeth FREER
c.261 bef. 14 September213 1873214 Emma GREY
c.262 15 September 1873215 Sydney Kate McINERNEY216 or McQUERNEY or McENEMY217 1860 Parents dead by 1873
c.263 25 September 1873218 Sydney Mary Ann MARSHALL219 1860 Father: John;220 Mother: alive 1873; Sister: Hannah; Brother: Henry James MARSHALL221
c.264 29 September 1873222 Sydney Kate SHEEHAN223 or SKAHIN224 or SKALEND225 or SKEEHAN226 1858 Father dead by 1873; Mother alive 1873; Grandmother: Mrs MAHONEY
c.265 8 October 1873;227 readmitted 13 September 1875228 West Maitland229 Agnes Amelia TAYLOR230 1863231
c.266 27 October 1873232 Jerilderie Catherine Ann JONES discharged March 1876233
c.267 20 November 1873234 Sydney Mary Ann NAUGHTON235 1859 Grandmother: Ellen NAUGHTON
c.268 27 November 1873236 Sydney Margaret BOYLE 1859
c.269 24 December 1873237 Sydney Sarah WATT
c.270 c. 1873238 Annie PINILLE
c.271 c. 1873239 Agnes SHIELDS Father: Henry240
c.272 c. 1873241; readmitted from Gulgong 28 March 1875242 Charlotte HENRY 1864243 Father: James; Mother, Jane; Sister: Mary Ann
c.273 c. 1873244 Mary Ann HENRY 1867245 Father: James; Mother, Jane; Sister: Charlotte
c.274 8 January 1874246 Sydney Mary Ann247 Eliza or Ellen FLETCHER 1859248 Father: Josiah FLETCHER (in Hobart);249 Mother: died around 1863; Sister: Louisa FLETCHER
c.275 13 February 1874250 Braidwood251 Mary AUBYRNE or AUBURN 1867252 unknown Sister: Sarah AUBURN to Newcastle
c.276 16 February 1874253 Sydney Maria Louisa DAWES 1860254
c.277 4 March 1874255 Sydney Jane STANFORD256 1859257
c.278 20 March 1874 Parkes258 Elizabeth TOUT259 1865260 aft. 1881261 Mother: Rose; Sister: Rosanna TOUT (admission 207)
c.279 20 March 1874 Parkes Thomas TOUT (M) 1869262 Mother: Rose; Sister: Rosanna and Elizabeth; Brother: Owen, David and William TOUT on the Vernon; transferred to Vernon 16 December 1875263
c.280 20 March 1874 Parkes David TOUT (M) 1872 Mother: Rose; Sister: Elizabeth and Rosanna TOUT; Brother: Owen, Thomas and William TOUT on the Vernon; transferred to Vernon 16 December 1875264
c.281 c. April 1874265 Maitland Rachel Rebecca BOGAN 1868266 Father: John; Mother: Elizabeth; Brother: Edward John BOGAN to Vernon
c.282 5 May 1874267 Sydney Mary Jane268 COULTER 1860269
c.283 14 May 1874270 Gulgong Eliza GRAHAM 1860 Father: George GRAHAM; Mother: Bridget; Step-father: John TIGHE271 or TYE
c.284 18 May 1874272 Sydney Emily SOMERS or SUMMERS 1859273
c.285 26 May 1874274 Sydney Agnes CRADDOCK 1858275 1938276 Father: William; Mother: Jane; married 1879277
c.286 1 June 1874278 Sydney Eliza Matilda WARING or WEARING279 1859280 Father: Edwin; Mother: Jemima Maude
c.287 1 July 1874281 Sydney Ann or Annie McCARTHY or McCARTY282 1860 Father: Jeremiah McCARTHY; Mother: Ann McCARTHY
c.288 8 July 1874283 Sydney Elizabeth Maria284 or Eliza MILLS 1859 Mother: Elizabeth MILLS
c.289 14 August 1874285 Singleton286 Alice GARBUTT or GARBET287 1865288 Father: James (in Maitland gaol);289 Mother: Mary H. (absconded)
c.290 14 August 1874290 Singleton291 Minnie aka Mary GARBUTT or GARBET292 1867293
c.291 13 October 1874294 Sydney Maria BRUNTON 1862 Father: Robert BRUNTON
c.292 20 October 1874295 Sydney Annie Maria HARRIS 1867 Sister: Eliza
c.293 20 October 1874296 Sydney Eliza HARRIS 1865 Sister: Annie Maria
c.294 c. 1874297 Sarah McBURNISH
c.295 late 1874298 Catherine HENRY 1871 sister to Charlotte and Mary Ann
c.296 c. 1874299 Mary RUSDEN 1861300
c.297 29 December 1874301 Gulgong Mary Ann INGLIS 1862302 living in Mudgee303
c.298 by 1875304 Lucy LONG
c.299 3 February 1875305 Sydney Annie QUINN 1861 Father: alive 1875; Mother: dead by 1875
c.300 19 February 1875306 Sydney Mary Ann CLIFTON307 1860 Father: Charles; Mother: Bridget;308 Parents alive 1875
c.301 22 March 1875309 Sydney Ann SULLIVAN310 1861 Father: John; Mother: Mary; Sister: Ellen admitted to Biloela in January 1877311
c.302 24 April 1875312 Sydney313 Margaret NEILL 1861314 Parents died in Victoria; Sister alive
c.303 by May 1875315 Annie Maria JONES 1863316 1880317 Sister: Mary Elizabeth
c.304 by May 1875318 Mary Elizabeth JONES Sister: Annie Maria
c.305 by August 1875 Minnie LEWIS319 c. 1860320
c.306 c. August 1875321 Braidwood Mary Ann DALE Step-mother: Ann Elizabeth DALE
c.307 28 September 1875322 Gulgong Mary Ann DOGHERTY 1865323
c.308 28 September 1875324 Gulgong Martha Jane DOGHERTY c.1862325
c.309 4 October 1875326 Braidwood327 tried Araluen328 Priscilla NEWMAN 1859329 Father: Thomas; Mother: Priscilla
c.310 18 October 1875330 Sydney331 Ellen Barbara332 MOORE 1864 Father: Willis MOORE;333 'a coloured girl'334
c.311 by October 1875335 Sydney Mary NUTHERCUTT, NETHERCUT or LEATHERCOURT 1858 Father: John NUTHERCUTT; Mother: Ellen
c.312 29 October 1875336 Sydney Louisa LEWIS337 or LOUIS338 1865
c.313 24 November 1875339 Deniliquin340 Catherine PERRYMAN 1869 Father: Henry PERRYMAN; Mother: Catherine; Brothers: Robert, Henry, John341
c.314 24 November 1875342 Deniliquin343 John PERRYMAN 1873 Father: Henry PERRYMAN; Mother: Catherine; Brothers: Robert, Henry, John344
c.315 3 December 1875345 Sydney Agnes DEVLIN c.1861
c.316 c. 22 December 1875346 Goulburn Kate347 COUGHLAN 1862 1938 Sister: Mary Ann COUGHLAN admitted to Newcastle
c.317 by 1875348 Maud SMITH c.1867349
c.318 by 1875350 Maria McGUIRK 1858
c.319 by 1875351 Violet Mabel PALMER b.c. 1868352
c.320 by February 1876353 Bathurst Charlotte TOOHEY354 aka SAUNDERS 1860355 In gaol 1875356
c.321 about February 1876357 William HORSFALL 1874358 discharged to his mother March 1877
c.322 by March 1876359 Ellen WILSON360 c.1865361
c.323 9 March 1876362 Sydney363 Alicia364 HARRISON 1861 Father: William HARRISON; parents divorced365
c.324 18 March 1876366 Sydney Sarah KELLY c. 1868367 brothers: Timothy and Thomas to Vernon
c.325 25 March 1876368 Harriett GANE 1861369 Father alive 1876; Mother: Theresa GANE
c.326 28 March 1876370 Gulgong Ann PEARSON371
c.327 29 March 1876372 Rockley Mary Ann McFEE aka McPHEE373 c. 1863374
c.328 March 1876375 Armidale Mary FITZSIMONS376 c.1873377
c.329 22 May 1876378 29 April 1876379 Bathurst380 Sarah Ann BRYANT 1864 Father: possibly Thomas; Mother: dead by 1876; Step-sister: possibly Charlotte YOW381)
c.330 by July 1876382 Ann LAMBERT Father: possibly Thomas; Mother: Ann; possibly sister to Louise LAMBERT admitted 1877
c.331 by July 1876383 Laura LUNNISS or LUNNINS c.1862384
334 5 July 1876385 Sydney Rose SCOTT386 Father: Thomas SCOTT;387
335 19 July 1876388 Sydney Eliza Jane WILLIS 1860389 1876390 Father: William WILLIS;391 Mother: alive 1876
336 c. 9 August 1876392 Gulgong Melinda KEOGH393 c. 1863394 Father alive 1876; Mother in gaol395
337 14 August 1876396 Sydney Mary397 or Eliza398 LANE 1861 Father: John LANE; Mother: Catherine nee unknown399
338 c. 26 August 1876400 Albury Elizabeth HANNA or HEANE401 c.1874402 Father a Chinaman; Mother: Margaret BAILEY in Melbourne
339 c. 15 September 1876 Bathurst403 Mary Ann TYSON404 c. 1871405 Father: Frederick TYSON a cripple [unclear] [unclear] in infirmary since about March last;406 Mother: Mary Ann TYSON407
340 c. 15 September 1876408 Bathurst409 Charlotte TYSON b.c. 1863410 Father: Frederick; Mother: Mary Ann
341 20 September 1876411 Sydney Emma BLAKE 1861412 father in Redfern separated from wife; Father: William; Mother: Catherine; probably admission 341 and either the sister of or cousin of Sarah Jane BLAKE admitted to Newcastle
342 18 October 1876413 Ten Mile Creek Jenny DAVIS c.1872414 Parents alive; grandmother alive
343 18 October 1876415 Parkes Julietta aka Julia ANSELINE c. 1864416 aft. 1888 father dead; Father: Jules ANSELINE; mother in Forbes gaol for sly grog selling; Mother: Mary ANSELINE417 alias MORRIS;418 Sister: Emily; Brothers: Everis and Alfred to Vernon
344 18 October 1876 Parkes Emily ANSELINE419 1869420 1938421 father dead; Father: Jules ANSELINE; mother in Forbes gaol for sly grog selling; Mother: Mary MORRIS; Sister: Julietta aka Julia; Brothers: Everis and Alfred to Vernon
345422 6 November 1876423 Deniliquin Emmaline FEATHERSTONE424 1871 Father: Charles FEATHERSTONE; mother dead by 1876

Biloela Reformatory Admissions

No record for any Reformatory admissions to Newcastle or Biloela has yet been found. Girls known to have been admitted to the Reformatory do not appear in any records for the Industrial School. One incomplete list naming the inmates in Newcastle425 and those admitted to Biloela by August 1874 exists.426 Newspaper reports or entries in the NSW Police Gazette have been used to tentatively identify girls admitted to the Reformatory after August 1874. In September 1875 there were nine inmates427 and by December 1876 there were fourteen girls in the Biloela Reformatory.428

A description in the Sydney Morning Herald on 10 March 1879, shortly before the Reformatory was moved to Watson's Bay, identified the locality of the samller Reformatory:

The Reformatory is established in one of the stone houses occupied by a warder in the old convict days. There are at present only two girls in this department, so that the labours of Mrs. King, the matron, are just at present rather light.429

Tried Location Given Surname, variation or alias Born Died Remarks
6(R) 6 June 1871 Newcastle430 Louisa BELLINGHAM or BILLINGHAM c.1860 1925
7(R) 1 December 1871431 Forbes Rosanna TOUT or TOUTE 1859 transferred to the Industrial School
8(R) 20 January 1872432 Ryde433 Elizabeth Ann PHILLIPS 1857 1931 Admitted first to and discharged from Newcastle in 1869
9(R) 25 May 1872434 Young Bessie Maud DANGAR435 transferred to the Industrial School
10(R) 26 October 1872 Sydney Emmeline Mary PETERS436 1860437
11(R) 18 January 1873438 Sydney439 Jane440 SCHOFIELD or CAULFIELD441 1860442 1875443 Father: Joseph CAULFIELD; Mother: Catherine FITZPATRICK
12(R) 18 January 1873444 Sydney445 Caroline WALL446 or HALL447 1863448
13(R) 18 January 1873449 Sydney450 Elizabeth SUMMERS 1862451
14(R) 29 January 1873 Wallabadah452 Susan JOHANNES
15(R) 17 May 1873453 Sydney Kate GALLEN or GOLLUN454 1859
16(R) 24 November 1873455 Sydney456 Mary Ann or Mary Jane ALLISON 1863 Mother: Bridget457
17(R) 1 December 1873458 Armidale Mary Ann Elizabeth SWAN
18(R) 30 January 1874459 Sydney460 Annie HARRISON Mother: Margaret HARRISON
19(R) 25 April 1874461 Sydney462 Matilda MORRISON 1861463
20(R) 4 July 1874464 Wagga Wagga Mary THOMPSON c. 1861
21(R) 29 September 1874465 Sydney Mary Jane or Mary Ann HOLTEN466 aka COLE467 Mother alive 1874
22(R) 13 October 1874468 Sydney Elizabeth HOWIE469 1860
23(R) 16 November 1874470 Sydney Harriet SCHOFIELD or SCHOEFIELD471 1862
24(R) 24 November 1874472 Sydney Mary Jane SCORES473 1861
25(R) 19 January 1875474 Sydney Mary RYAN475 1860
26(R) 24 December 1875476 Sydney Sarah WATT477 1860478
27(R) 24 August 1876479 Sydney Bertha BECKE or BECK480 1862
28(R) 24 August 1876481 Sydney Edith DATSON 1863
29(R) 24 August 1876482 Sydney Annie or Hannah483 WALSH 1861 Father alive 1876
30(R) c. 1878484 Sydney Julietta aka Julia ANSELINE c. 1864 aft. 1888 Father: Jules ANSELINE; Mother: Mary MORRIS; absconded from industrial school apprenticeship and sent to Reformatory
31(R) abt. January 1879 Inverell485 Elizabeth Dora ALLEN c. 1864
32(R) 16 June 1879486 Sydney Margaret VANNAN c. 1865 Father: William; Mother: Catherine (See also: CSIL: 80/3460 [1/2482])
33(R) abt. November 1879 Inverell487 Eliza Ann BURNS c. 1867
34(R) 29 January 1880 Newcastle488 Mary WEST

Shaftesbury Reformatory Admissions

On 5 February 1880 the premises on Cockatoo Island ceased to be a Reformatory School and the Shaftesbury Reformatory for Females at Watson's Bay was proclaimed. The cottage style premises were intended to house forty to fifty girls. Girls were sentenced to the reformatory for periods of one to five years.
The numbers actually housed here were small often numbering fewer than 20. 13 girls were in residence in 1900 when the State Children Relief Board took control of Shaftesbury. The Board then placed 25 female State wards (either invalids or girls who were unsuitable to apprentice as domestic servants) into the home in addition to the girls under sentence.
Shaftesbury closed in March 1904 and the girls were boarded-out. On 12 April 1904 the Shaftesbury ceased to be a reformatory school and a portion of the Central Depot for the State children at "Ormond House", Paddington was proclaimed a Reformatory School for Females. The girls under sentence were transferred to Ormond House in 1905.489

Shaftesbury remained under the superintendency of Agnes KING. Admissions to the reformatory were not identified in any Industrial School records and only one admission register dating from 1888 survives.490 Girls admitted before 1888 are identified below. Newspaper reports or entries in the NSW Police Gazette have been used to identify girls admitted to the Reformatory after February 1880.

The mysterious Jane MURPHY who was transferred from Goulburn Gaol with her brother, Henry, on 28 November 1877 and Mary EVANS also from Goulburn Gaol who was sent to Biloela at the same time as Emily JACKSON but does not appear in the Biloela records, need more investigation as these girls cannot be found being admitted to Biloela. They are not recorded in industrial school admissions so were perhaps admitted to the Reformatory.

Tried Location Given Surname, variation or alias Born Died Remarks
35(R) abt. August 1880 Goulburn491 Louisa BULLOCK 1866
36(R) 23 August 1880 Newtown492 Mary Jane TAYLOR 1866
37(R) abt. November 1880 Sydney493 Agnes MARSHALL 1866
38(R) 30 December 1880 Sydney494 Elizabeth WATSON 1868 father dead; mother alive
39(R) 30 December 1880 Sydney495 Ann CALLISTER 1871 parents in Surry Hills
40(R) 8 March 1881 Newcastle496 Joanna SMITH 1867 mother in Newcastle
41(R) 22 March 1881497 Sydney498 Alice ASHPLANT 1863499 1938 alias Emily McINTOSH; Father John' Mother Mary Ann
42(R) 6 June 1881 Newtown500 Rebecca NOBBS 1868 illegitimate; Mother: Lucy501
43(R) 20 June 1881 Albury502 Margaret MULLENS c. 1868 father dead; mother remarried
44(R) abt. August 1881503 Greta504 Alice BAKER 1874
45(R) 18 August 1881 Sydney505 Helena KINGER 1869 alias CROTTY
46(R) 18 August 1881 Sydney506 Rosanna BOURKE 1871
47(R) 30 September 1881507 Glen Innes508 Sarah Jane CLARKE 1868509
48(R) 6 December 1881 Windsor510 Matilda BARTON Father: William
49(R) 4 January 1882 Sydney511 Alice JAMIESON 1869512 Sister: Agnes
50(R) 5 January 1882 Goulburn513 Maud Jane aka Mary Jane LAMB Mother: Mary; father in gaol; Sister: Violet May514
51(R) c. March 1882 Temora515 Emily516 JACKSON c. 1868 parents alive; sister in Young gaol
52(R) 4 April 1882 Echuca517 Matilda HUBBARD parents dead; cousin Mr FRISWELL
53(R) 5 May 1882 Sydney518 Elizabeth McKINLAY 1868 mother alive
54(R) 8 May 1882 Newtown519 Emily J. MILLER 1868 grandmother alive520
55(R) 26 June 1882 Newtown521 Elizabeth FERRY 1868
56(R) abt. August 1882 Orange522 unknown Unnamed 1870 Chinese half-caste523
57(R) 4 November 1882 Newtown524 Amy GRIMBLE 1867 alias NEAREN
58(R) 14 December 1882; readmitted to Shaftesbury May 1887525 Wollongong526 Harriett WELLER aka ELLIS 1871 Adoptive Father: John WELLER
59(R) c. 2 January 1883 Windsor527 Mary TURNER 1868
60(R) abt. 1883528 unknown Sarah Jane BUTLER 1868
61(R) 31 January 1883 Newtown529 Alice LENTON 1869 Stepfather: Henry LENTON530
62(R) 30 June 1883 Bathurst531 Margaret McGREGOR
63(R) abt. June 1883 Yass532 Eliza aka Elizabeth COOPER 1869533 mother and brother living
64(R) abt. June 1883 Cowra unknown McGREGOR 1869534
65(R) abt. July 1883 Forbes Mary DREW alias SCOLLIOSS 1874535
66(R) 7 August 1883 Bathurst536 Emily CARTER
67(R) 7 August 1883 Bathurst537 Minnie SCALLION
68(R) bef. January 1884 Goulburn538 Jane aka Emily Jane LONG 1870539 Father: Peter (a coloured540 man)541 Mother: Mary Ann; Sister: Mary Susan (in Biloela)542
69(R) 2 January 1884 East Maitland543 Annie BROWN 1873 father dead; mother remarried
70(R) 17 April 1884 Goulburn544 Ada MULLALLY 1868 father in Melbourne; mother dead
71(R) 18 April 1884 Redfern545 Dana JOHNSON 1870
72(R) abt. May 1884 Tamworth546 Hannah GUTHERIE
73(R) 1 August 1884 Goulburn547 Rebecca CARTER 1869548 Mother: Mary Ann living; father thousands of miles away
74(R) 22 January 1885 Sydney549 Christina AIRD Parents living
75(R) 24 June 1885 Redfern550 Esther ROSEVEAR 1870
76(R) 3 December 1885 Wilcannia551 Sarah REID Sent for Protection for 5 years
77(R) 9 December 1885 Balmain552 Isabella Horn553 HAWTHORNE 1874 Adoptive father: Robert CHISHOLM
78(R) 19 December 1885 Goulburn554 Kate GRONO 1871
79(R) 20 April 1886555 Sydney556 Lily or Lilly FORREST 1870 Father living
80(R) 23 June 1886 Redfern557 Blanche DOUGLAS 1871
81(R) abt. 6 June 1886 Bathurst558 Ellen RALSTON 1871
82(R) 17 July 1886 Bathurst559 Adelaide STEELE 1874 Father dead; Mother: Elizabeth STEELE
83(R) 6 October 1886 Goulburn560 Emily McNEICE 1873561 1909562 Mother: Annie McNEICE; Aunts: Eliza, Sarah and Mary McNEICE admitted to Newcastle
84(R) bef. November 1886563 unknown Sarah DEMPSEY c. 1873
85(R) 19 November 1886564 Yass Emily CROUCH 1872
86(R) 19 November 1886565 Redfern Phyllis FRATER 1872
87(R) 20 January 1887566 Redfern Ada BOOTH 1875 Grandmother: Caroline BOOTH
88(R) bef. February 1887 Sydney Julia McKEON 1878 Father: Joseph; Mother: Maria; admitted to Parramatta in February 1888567
89(R) abt. February 1887 Sydney568 Mabel HELLER
90(R) 20 April 1887569 Redfern Jessie GIFFEN 1873
91(R) 12 May 1887570 Sydney Mary Jane KERRIGAN 1872
92(R) 15 May 1887571 Sydney Harriett ELLIS 1872
93(R) 17 May 1887572 Sydney Mary Jane HOGAN 1872
94(R) 8 September 1887573 Redfern Jane ROSKELLY aka ROSS KELLY 1875 Father: John ROSS KELLY; mother died seven months earlier; Brother: John; three siblings
95(R) 30 September 1887574 Sydney Lena JONES
96(R) 30 December 1887575 Sydney Elizabeth Ann GRIEVES
97(R) c. April 1888576 Sydney Theresa MALLON

Updated March 2020

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