Name Variations DANFORD
Father John1 [surname unknown] b. unknown m. none d. unknown
Step-Father Thomas CALLAGHAN b.c. 1804 m. 18692 d. 18793
Mother Jane DUNFORD4 b.c. 18315 m. 1869 d. 19046
Inmate Mary Ann DANFORD b. 18537 m. 18738 (see below) d. 19329
Sister Catherine CALLAGHAN b. 185510 m. (1) 187811 (2) 189512 (1) John NORRIS (2) Isaac CARPENTER d. 193813
Brother John CALLAGHAN b. 185714 m. 187915 Mary C. MACLEAN d. 189216
Sister Ellen CALLAGHAN b. 186017 m. (1) 1892 (2) 1896 (1) Merandel McDONALD (2) Archibald TULLOCH d. 193618
Brother Thomas CALLAGHAN b. 186319 m. 189120 Emily SYMORIA d. 192521
Sister Frances Jane CALLAGHAN b. 186622 m. 188723 William TREHARNE d. 195024
Brother Patrick J. CALLAGHAN b. 186625 m. none - d. 186626
Sister Lucy Marie CALLAGHAN b. 186827 m. 189528 Henry HENSBY d. 194529
Brother William B.30 CALLAGHAN b. 187131 m. 189732 Amelia M. NICHOLS33 d. 191734
Sister Gertrude Clara CALLAGHAN b. 187335 m. 189536 Willie E. ROBINSON d. 193437
Husband (1) Stephen GREEN b. c. 185138 m. 187339 d. 191140
Husband (2) Edward DUCK b. m. 191541 d.
Son Thomas GREEN b. 187542 m. 189743 Elizabeth HAMMAT d. 190144
Daughter Anna GREEN b. 187745 m. 189846 William JOHNSON d.
Son Percy Stephen GREEN b. 187947 m. d. 194248
Daughter May Isabel GREEN b. 188249 m. d.
Son Arthur George B. GREEN b. 188550 m. 190651 Elizabeth M. DOUGLAS52 d. 195153
Son Cecil William GREEN b. 188754 m. d. 188955
Daughter Grace Naomi GREEN b. 188956 m. 1907 Charles DODDS d. 1962
Son Alfred E. A. GREEN b. 189357 m. d. 193258
Relationship Name Age Height Hair Eyes Complexion Build Distinguishing features
Father Thomas59 28 5' 10" brown hazel dark ruddy lost a front upper tooth; cross scar on upper lip, scar on chin; mole ball of left thumb

Mary Ann CALLAGHAN was charged under the on 23 September 1868, with habitually wandering about the streets in the city and district of Sydney in no ostensible lawful occupation. Her parents, who were reported as alive and living in St. Leonards, had complained of her conduct and stated that they could not keep her in any respectable employment and that she frequently stayed away from home. This very strongly suggests that they had taken out the warrant for Mary Ann's arrest under the Act.60 Mary Ann was admitted to the school on 25 September,61 and was recorded in the Entrance Book as a Catholic who could read the first book and write on slate. It is not considered likely that three years before her arrest under the Industrial School's Act and as Maryann CALLAGHAN, Mary Ann had been arrested for riotous behaviour in public places62 as Darlinghurst Gaol records identify that this particular admission was 17. While this may have been a lie told at the time there are other girls with this name who might possibly be this admission.

On 6 August 1870, Mary Ann was identified as one of the carers of Margaret Hughes ELLIS during Margaret's prolonged illness and subsequent death. Mary Ann gave evidence to the coroner at her inquest.63 Eleven days after this appearance, Mary Ann's mother, Jane, wrote to the Colonial Secretary seeking her release. In response CLARKE stated:

Since I have known this girl her character has been good. She is too delicate to go into service and as both her parents are alive I should think they could take charge of her.

On September 1, the Acting Sub-inspector ANDERSON from A Division Number 4 Station agreed with CLARKE and reported that Mary Ann's parents:

… are respectable and in comfortable circumstances according to their station in life. Her father is a rough carpenter and is the owner of the house in which he resides; he also keeps a dairy on a small scale which is managed by his wife.

On 8 September 1870, permission was granted by the Colonial Secretary for Mary Ann's return to her mother,64 and on 27 September Mary Ann was discharged from the school into the care of her parents.65

No gaol or Police Gazette records have been confirmed for Mary Ann and none are believed to exist. At least two women named Mary CALLAGHAN or Mary Ann CALLAGHAN or Marian CALLAGHAN appeared in the Sydney courts during the time that Mary Ann was in Newcastle.66 Only the woman admitted to Darlinghurst Gaol on 14 March 1871 could possibly have been her. While the implication of newspaper accounts of the incident were that Mary Ann's co-accused, Mary Ann SMITH, had been 'longer known,' suggesting that Mary Ann was a new vagrant and while this trial date fits well with Mary Ann's release from Newcastle, this is not thought to have been the Newcastle admission. This woman was admitted for one month for vagrancy67 as Marian CALLAGHAN alias BLAKE.68 No other gaol admissions in Sydney can refer to Mary Ann as by August 1871 it is believed that she was on the North Coast of NSW.

In August 1871, in Grafton, some months after this Sydney incident, Mary Ann CALLAGHAN, who was described by her mistress, Helen STANLEY, as a domestic servant in the Grafton area, was accused of the theft of a white mohair dress. The case was ultimately dismissed.69 It is almost certain that this reference does refer to Mary Ann. It is conceivable that her parents arranged for her to be removed from inappropriate associates in Sydney to Grafton and if the gaol reference earlier in 1871 does refer to her, this would make a move from Sydney even more important. Mary Ann married the Grafton farmer, Stephen GREEN, in the Wesleyan Parsonage, Grafton, on 3 January 1873. The witnesses were Stephen's parents, William and Sarah GREEN70 Mary Ann's occupation wasn't stated but her parents were identified on the registration as Thomas CALLAGHAN, a splitter, and Jane DANFORD. This marriage has been registered on the NSW BDM Index as Green STEPHEN as well as Stephen GREEN. Stephen's correct surname was confirmed in subsequent birth registrations of eight children made in Grafton to Stephen and Mary Ann GREEN. It may be that after Mary Ann arrived on the North Coast, other members of the family came to the area as a William CALLAGHAN, who was working at the defendant's property, gave evidence in an assault trial involving Stephen, Mary Ann and some of their children in 1888.71 On 18 January 1896, Mary Ann and her daughter, Annie were injured when their sulky was hit at night near Carr's Creek by a galloping horse. This article identified that Stephen was lessee of the Southampton punt.72

Stephen died in 1911 and four years later, again in Grafton, Mary Ann married Edward DUCK. She died as Mary Ann DUCK in Grafton in February 1932.73 Her parents were confirmed on her death registration. At the time of her death it was indicated that she had three sons and three daughters from her first marriage and it is believed that these six children were still alive in 1932.74


Mary Ann's parents were Thomas CALLAGHAN and Jane DUNFORD. Thomas was the only parent identified in the Entrance Book. He was named as Thomas CALLAGHAN and described as a fencer.75 Her mother was identified as Jane in correspondence written by her in 1870 where she requested Mary Ann's release from Newcastle.76 Mary Ann was the only child of Thomas and Jane whose birth wasn’t registered with the surname CALLAGHAN. While some online trees identify that she had been born in the Grafton area where she eventually married, it is considered almost entirely certain that her birth was registered as Mary Ann DANFORD in 1853. Her parents were recorded on this baptism as John, a miner, and Jane. There was no notation on the baptism indicating whether Mary Ann was illegitimate. This record indicated that she had been born on 9 April 1853, and baptised on 29 May by Oswald J. HOWELL at St James Church of England, Sydney. Both John and Jane were residents of the North Shore.77

While the religion differs from that outlined in the Entrance Book, the location of John and Jane was the same as that of Thomas and Jane and this baptism strongly suggested that Mary Ann was the daughter of an unknown man, probably named John, and Jane DANFORD. It must therefore be considered that she was not the daughter of Thomas, the man known as and who she identified as her father. Further support is given to this record being her baptism as in August 1870, Jane CALLAGHAN stated that Mary Ann was 'seventeen years and five months old.'78 While this age was not an exact match for a birth date of April 1853, it is very close. Additionally, no further births or deaths for any other DANFORD (or variants) children exist for this couple and this child was not the Mary A. DUNFORD who married Edwin OTTERY in 1872.

Jane DANFORD aka DUNFORD and Thomas CALLAGHAN married in St. Leonards in 1869.79 The NSW BDM Index recorded birth registrations for nine children beginning in 1855 and most of these children were registered in St Leonards. Thomas and Jane CALLAGHAN were living in St. Leonards at the time of the Mary Ann’s arrest under the Act. The family were Catholic and it is expected that the baptism record for the birth of their daughter, Catherine, was recorded in a Catholic register although this baptism cannot be read.

Jane DANFORD had arrived as an assisted immigrant aboard the Thomas Arbuthnot in 1849 at the age of 18. She was a house servant who had been born in County Kildare, Ireland. Her parents were identified on the indent as Samuel and Jane.80 No trace of Jane has been identified and any appearances in Darlinghurst for a woman of this name unlikely to refer to this woman as the ships of arrival do not match. Jane CALLAGHAN died in 1904 at the age of 8381 at her home 36 West Street, North Sydney.82 Her children were identified on her death registration but the unidentified child, Archie, recorded in Funeral Notices83 as her son has not been identified. Might he be the Archibald CALLAGHAN born in 187184 to John CALLAGHAN and his wife, Winifred A. BRICKWOOD who had married in 186585 in Sydney? Was there a connection with this CALLAGHAN family? Might this John be a member of Thomas' earlier Irish family?

While it is believed that Thomas CALLAGHAN was Mary Ann's step-father, she believed and accepted him as her father. Thomas had been born in Waterford, Ireland, in about 1804.86 He was much older than Jane and, considering this difference in age, it is considered likely that Mary Ann and her siblings were children of a second marriage. Descendants indicate that this was the case.87 It is possible but unproven that there may have been half-siblings from this earlier marriage who may have come to Australia. The Irish ancestry of the family was hinted at in the 1861 court appearance of Thomas.88

There is almost no doubt that Thomas had been transported to NSW. Descendants accept that Mary's father was the man who had arrived on 4 August 1837, aboard the Calcutta whose details match those of Mary Ann's father.89 Thomas CALLAGHAN had been sentenced in March 1837 to seven years transportation for grievous assault. He had been born in Waterford, Ireland, and could read. Thomas was married at the time of his trial and transportation90 and this earlier marriage is considered likely to have contributed to the late marriage of Thomas and Jane after the birth of almost all their children. The 1837 Muster located Thomas at Dungog91 but this was shortly after his arrival in NSW and he did not remain in the Hunter Valley after he had completed his time once he had been freed in about 1844. At five feet, ten inches tall, Thomas was taller than average for men at this period of time. When Thomas prosecuted Arthur BRISTOL or BRISTOE in March 1857, he was described in this court appearance as a 'tall, powerful Irishman.'92 A further report of this incident indicated that it occurred on the North Shore – the location of St Leonards93 so there is little doubt that the article is a reference to Mary Ann's father. A further incident between BRISTOL and Thomas occurred four years later in March 1861 and this time the event was clearly identified as having occurred in St Leonards.94 Thomas was ordered to prison if he did not pay sureties. As he doesn't appear in Darlinghurst Gaol records for this date he must have paid the sureties. When Thomas died in October 1979, his Funeral Notice read:

CALLAGHAN. – At his residence, West St. Leonards, [of] County Waterford, Ireland, Mr. Thomas Callaghan, aged 75 years.95

No gaol admission records or mentions in the Police Gazette have been located for Thomas so it has not been possible to confirm his probable convict past from either of these sources but his death registration in 1879 has been viewed and the informant, Jane, stated that he had been in the colony for about 47 years at that date. This is gives an approximate date or arrival of 1832 and while not an exact match for the arrival of the Calcutta is close.

Updated May 2018

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