The HANMORE sisters
Step-father Samuel DEERDIN aka DEERING, DEERDEN, DEERING, DEARING,2 b.c. 18093 m. (1) 1847 d. aft. 1874
Father Benjamin HANMORE aka ANMORE, ENMORE b.c. 18034 m. (2) none d. 18675
Mother Margaret aka Mary CLARKE aka MOORE aka READ b.c. 1823 m. (1) 1847 (2) none d. 19016
Sister Mary aka Mary Ann aka Anne HANMORE alias Catherine MOORE b.c. 18437 m. none William BROADBENT d. bet. 1869 & 1901
Brother Benjamin ANNMORE8 b.c. 1846 m. d. aft. 19019
Inmate Eliza aka Elizabeth HANMORE b. 184810 m. unknown (see below) d. aft. 190111
Sister Maria ENMORE b. 185512 m. none - d. 185613
Inmate Theresa Ann HANMORE b.c. 185814 m. 187615 (see below) d. 194616
Relationship Name Age Height Hair Eyes Complexion Build Distinguishing features
Grandfather Christopher17 28 5' 6½" dark brown dark hazel dark ruddy & freckled scar on upper lip and scrophulous marks on throat
Grandmother Mary READ alias CLARKE18 22 5' 1" brown blue dark/much freckled
Father Benjamin19 23 5' 4¾" dark brown brown ruddy & freckled scar between eyes and on right jaw; two small scars outside left arm; can read and write
Mother Margaret20 35 5' 4" black hazel can't read and write
Sister Mary21 16 5' 2" black blue read and write

Note All arrests and court appearances in connection with the industrial school for both Eliza and Theresa were made using the surname 'MOORE'. Only the CSIL identified that their father's surname was HANMORE but didn't state that 'MOORE' was an alias adopted by all the sisters and their mother. It may be that administrators were unaware that this was the most appropriate spelling but this can't be confirmed. HANMORE was the name that was frequently used on official documents and when female members of the family weren't facing criminal charges. It was also the name that appeared in the few verified records on the NSW BDM Index and was the arrival name of their father.

Eliza and Theresa were two of the children of Benjamin HANMORE and Margaret CLARKE. The first appearance of the HANMORE children in the institutions of NSW was in 1852, before the births of either Maria or Theresa, when three children, Mary, Benjamin and Elizabeth ANNMORE, were admitted to the Roman Catholic Orphan School.22 On 15 May, Bishop DAVIS wrote to the Governor General requesting that their admission be sanctioned. In this correspondence their father was not identified and their mother was described as living in a 'state of complete destitution and the children are on the streets.' Six months later Benjamin ANNMORE wrote requesting the release of the children. He indicated that Margaret had been in the House of the Good Shepherd at the time the children were admitted and he identified that the person admitting the children was a respectable widow named Mrs O'HARE, who resided in Parramatta Street. Mrs O'HARE was a neighbour of the HANMOREs on the Ultimo Estate and there is a very strong likelihood, but it has to date not been confirmed, that she was the mother of Mary Ann O'HARE. Because Benjamin was not identified as the father at the time of the admission to the Orphan School, a further petition was sent outlining his relationship with Margaret.23 Later events indicated that the children had been released but there was no indication in the correspondence that Benjamin's petition had been successful.

On 31 July 1867, a month before the school opened, the sisters, Elizabeth and Theresa, appeared on the list of at risk children compiled by the constables of Sydney, where they were described as Protestants who were both of robust health. Eliza was recorded as a fifteen-year-old prostitute who had already appeared once in court. Theresa was recorded as a seven-year-old. The constables wrote:

These sisters live with their mother (who sells pipeclay) and an elder sister a prostitute who has been convicted for vagrancy several times; the younger goes to school occasionally but is often in the company of Prostitutes.24

A month later, after the establishment of the school at Newcastle, Eliza and Theresa were arrested. They were taken from their mother's house on the Ultimo Estate and appeared in court on 30 August 1867.25 The evidence26 of Sergeant LEE, Senior-sergeant TAYLOR, Sergeant CONDICK and Inspector READ disclosed that Eliza’s older sister was a prostitute who lived in the same house and confirmed that their mother, Margaret, sent her children out selling pipeclay. The sisters were admitted to Newcastle as part of the first admissions of girls in Newcastle and arrived on 31 August 1867.27


In August 1867, at the time of Eliza and Theresa's arrest, Margaret was identified in the Newcastle Entrance Book as the widow, Margaret Ann MOORE [sic]. No father was named. The ancestry of the sisters and the identification of all the HANMORE children can only be made by accessing correspondence in the CSIL. Margaret's petition28 to the Colonial Secretary seeking to have both her daughters released from Newcastle and the resulting communication from the Colonial Secretary, identified the sisters' father, confirmed his correct surname, outlined the adult relationships and identified Margaret's only marriage. The Inspector General of Police responded to Margaret's petition in a letter dated 25 September 1867, and stated that:

the petitioners name is not Anmore but Deering she being the wife of a man named Samuel Deering, who is still living. He ceased to reside with the petitioner many years ago in consequence of her dissipated habits.
The two children, Elizabeth and Theresa, together with a third daughter,29 are all illegitimate being the issue of an adulterous intercourse with a man named Anmore, now deceased. The petitioner has been convicted under the Vagrant Act and is at present living in a hut containing but one apartment with her eldest daughter who lives by prostitution. Since the committal of petitioner's daughters to the Industrial School, complaints have been made to the police that her house from being the resort of persons of bad repute is a common nuisance to the neighbourhood … With regard to the persons whose signatures the petition purports to bear, Messrs. Fegan, Riley and Bourke, deny having signed it, Mr Selby states he was drunk when he did so and others state they signed it without understanding its object and are of opinion that petitioner is not a suitable person to have charge of her children.

Samuel (X) DEERDIN, a bachelor, and Margaret (X) CLARKE, a spinster, both from the St Lawrence parish, had married on 8 November 1847, at the St Lawrence Church of England, Sydney.30 The witnesses were Ann (X) TROY and Thomas WOOD. Later statements made by the constables implied that Margaret had begun a relationship with Benjamin HANMORE shortly after this marriage and confirmed that she had never married Benjamin HANMORE. There may possibly have been some religious conflict between Margaret CLARKE and Benjamin HANMORE. Benjamin was recorded as a Catholic at the time of his arrival and Margaret's marriage to Samuel DEERDIN occurred in a Church of England church. Eliza and Theresa were recorded in industrial school records as Protestants yet the three siblings had been admitted to the Roman Catholic Orphan School in 1852. Margaret was ultimately buried in a Catholic cemetery.

Benjamin HANMORE aka ANMORE had been transported on the Countess of Harcourt in 1825.31 He was a Catholic who had been born in Bristol, England, in about 1811. He worked as a bricklayer. Trial locations very strongly suggested that Benjamin was related to the Joseph HANMORE who had been transported on the Glory in 181832 but this relationship has not been confirmed. In 1833 Benjamin was living in Parramatta when he requested permission to marry Mary Ann HUMPHRIES. Permission for this marriage was denied by the Rev. Samuel MARSDEN.33 In 1836 after Benjamin had lost his Certificate of Freedom, he placed an advertisement34 that cautioned any constable against molesting him as he intended to prosecute them. In April 1856 as Benjamin ENMORE, he was in court charged with an assault to Elizabeth BOYD.35 Benjamin appeared in the Sydney courts and in the Darlinghurst Gaol records during 1862 and 1863.36 In 186237 he worked at 'emptying closets' but by 1863,38 when he and Margaret were arrested for theft, he was reported39 to have had other forms of income as he 'got his living by sending the girls he harboured out for the purposes of prostitution.' Benjamin was living at 370 Harris Street, Pyrmont,40 at the time of his death in 1867. His parents were recorded on his death registration on the NSW BDM Index as Benjamin and Rachel. It is thought likely that Margaret provided this information to the informant but the actual registration has not been viewed and descendants have to date been unable to verify Benjamin's birth and family in England.41

A compilation of many records are needed to identify Margaret. She varied not just her surname but also her given name in her many appearances in court – perhaps to try to avoid recognition after each arrest. Only some newspaper court reports have been located that verify her many gaol admissions as court appearances can't easily be confirmed without an exact date from the gaol records. Identifying further gaol admissions and descriptions, that can be matched to her 1863 appearance with Benjamin, may still be possible and this task is ongoing. Information from gaol admissions concerning Margaret's reading and writing ability, her religion and age varied almost as often as her name but there is little doubt that the admissions refer to the one woman. The most consistent records indicated that Margaret's maiden name was CLARKE and that she had been born in Sydney in about 1823. She probably was able to read and write but this can't be verified. Margaret appeared in either newspaper court reports or gaol records with the surname HANMORE,42 CLARKE,43 MOORE,44 DEERING,45 and ENMORE.46 She was also identified as Jane READ47 and she was almost without any doubt the Jane HANMORE alias CLARKE, recorded as a fifty-seven-year-old Protestant, admitted to Darlinghurst in 1872.48 A report of this court appearance hasn't yet been located. Margaret was almost certainly also the Jane DEERING, the Margaret DEERING alias Jane READ and the Margaret Jane MOORE appearing in Darlinghurst records. Margaret probably also went to gaol for a week in 1875.49 It is possible but unconfirmed that she also used the alias of HUGHES.50

Margaret first appeared as an inmate of the Female Orphan Institution at Parramatta where she was identified on the 1828C as the four-year-old female, M. CLARKE. The admission books of the Female Orphan School indicated that Margaret had been admitted on 8 August 1825, at the age of one year and five months. Her mother wasn't identified in the admission register but was confirmed as a prisoner. It was recorded that her father was dead but this statement was not accurate as it is considered very likely that this description of Margaret's father was due to the fact that by 1825 he had not yet arrived in NSW. In 1832 an application for her removal from the orphan institution occurred. This petition identified that Margaret's parents were Christopher CLARKE and his wife, Mary Ann.51 Christopher had been transported after the arrival of his wife. He arrived in 1826 on the Sir Godfrey Webster with a life sentence. Mary Ann, whom he had married in Ireland in August 1821, had been transported for seven years on board the Mariner. The indents of both ships attributed a child to each convict and the Mariner indent identified the two-year-old child, Margaret CLARKE, travelling and arriving with her mother, Mary READ or CLARKE.52 Christopher CLARKE died in 1846 at the age of 54 and his death was recorded on the Sir Godfrey Webster indent.53 No trace of Mary Ann READ or CLARKE has yet been found. Margaret had one known sibling, Christopher CLARK,54 who had been baptised in 1832 in NSW. Although she provided no name, Margaret confirmed in her correspondence to the Colonial Secretary in 1871 that her brother was living in Queensland.55 It was confirmed that Margaret was still alive in December 1886 when she appeared in Newtown Court as the 63-year-old Margaret HANMORE.56 She died as Margaret DEARING on 9 April 1901, where her parents were confirmed on the NSW BDM Index. Her daughter, Elizabeth, was the informant and the actual registration indicated that three of her children, Benjamin, Elizabeth and Theresa, were still alive and that by 1901, one daughter had died. This deceased daughter was almost certainly Mary aka Mary Ann aka Ann and the child, Maria, who had died as an infant in 1856 was unknown by or forgotten by Elizabeth. It is still unknown whether the witnesses at the time of her death, Sarah TAYLOR and Sarah CLARK, were connected in any way to the family.57 Margaret was buried at the Roman Catholic Cemetery, Rookwood, at the age of 75. No other people have yet been identified sharing her grave.58

Five children have been confirmed as those of Benjamin HANMORE and Margaret CLARKE but only the baptisms of Eliza, as Elizabeth ANMORE, and Maria as Maria DEARDEN have been located. Maria's baptism does not appear anywhere on the NSW BDM Index but it was recorded in 1855 at St Michael's, Flinder's Street, Surry Hills. She had been born on 28 May 1855 and had been baptised on 6 August 1855 and this baptism should appear on one of the baptism records on the NSW BDM Index. Her parents were identified as Samuel and Margaret DEARDEN of Liverpool Street. Letters from the CSIL in 1867 are clear that Margaret had left Samuel DEARDEN well before 1855 and the constables in Sydney declared that all Margaret's children were the children of Benjamin HANMORE59 so the identity of Maria's father is open to question. The paternity of any of Margaret's children may perhaps only be able to be clarified with DNA investigations. Maria HANMORE or ENMORE died from convulsions in 185660 in Sydney at the age of seventeen months.61

Theresa was linked her sister Eliza and mother, Margaret Ann MOORE [sic] in the records of the Newcastle Industrial School but two other children, Benjamin and Mary ANNMORE, were identified at the time of their admissions to the Roman Catholic Orphan School in 1852. During the 1860s Margaret and Benjamin were reported to have only three daughters and no reference has been identified in any newspaper or the NSW BDM Index or to Queensland BDM to their son, Benjamin. At the time Benjamin was admitted to the Roman Catholic Orphan School his age suggested that he had been born in about 1847. When his mother died in 1901 her death registration identified that he was still living but no further evidence of his existence has been found. No appropriate death has yet been located for a man named Benjamin with a mother named Margaret or a father named Benjamin. It may be that he assumed a different surname to either MOORE or HANMORE. It is possible that he also moved to Queensland with Margaret's brother.

The existence of Eliza and Theresa's older sister, Mary, was confirmed in letters in the CSIL connected to the industrial school but she was unnamed in this correspondence. Mary assumed various names. She was the mother to the four-day-old William ENMORE, who died on 9 July 1864,62 and was recorded at the time of his death as Mary Ann HANMORE.63 Mary Ann's age and perhaps other details may be recorded on William's death registration64 but it has not been cited. This child's father was almost certainly William BROADBENT, the man whose name Mary adopted for some years. Court appearances and gaol records confirmed that Mary began her relationship with William BROADBENT in about 1862 and she was certainly in that relationship by 186465 creating considerable concern from another woman with the same name living in Sydney who wrote:

Sir, In the police report of last week, a woman under the assumed name of Mary Broadbent, and whose real name is Moore, was fined for robbery and fighting.
Fearing my friends may be under the impression that I am the party, I wish it to be known that I am not the person referred to.
MARY ANN BROADBENT, Pitt-street South.66

Mary was almost certainly also known as Anne and very probably also as Maria.67 She was almost without doubt one of the two MOORE sisters who appeared in court in October 1864. The given names provided for the pair in court were Betsy and Catherine. It is thought that in this case, Mary had assumed the name of Catherine.68 The Darlinghurst Gaol records of 1866 identified a Maria HANMORE who had been born in Sydney in about 1837 who was Catholic and could read and write. The age in this record is thought to be wrong and this admission is thought to refer to Mary Ann rather than to her mother. In addition to this admission, Mary's age in gaol records also varied wildly, with her birth year identified as anywhere between about 1840 to 1845. The most consistent year of birth appeared to be about 184269 and it may be that her baptism had been recorded as Elizabeth ANMORE in 1843. This baptism cannot easily be read.70 Mary Ann HANMORE or MOORE continued to appear in gaol records but it is thought that Mary didn't remain with BROADBENT as her appearances as Mary BROADBENT mostly cease in about 1865 although she was recorded as Mary MOORE alias BROADBENT when she was imprisoned in Darlinghurst in 1869.71 Mary may have appeared in court in May 1871.72 It has not yet been possible to confirm that Mary was alive after 1869 but she had died by 1901 as she was not identified on her mother's death registration.

It is unlikely that the Mary and William BROADBENT who lived in Newcastle and began to appear in the Newcastle courts from about 1871 are the same couple as Maitland Gaol records identified this woman's year of birth as about 1819. This couple separated in 1875.73 Mary Ann or her daughter may have gone on to marry John LIDDALL in Newcastle in 1893.74

It is unknown whether, although it is considered unlikely, any other children were born to Margaret and registered under one of her aliases. Another couple also named Benjamin and Margaret CLARKE were registering children at the same time but investigations suggest that this family was unlikely to be connected.


Name Variations Elizabeth ANMORE, ENMORE, HANMOORE, HANMORE alias Catherine75 alias MOORE
Husband John HARPER b. m. none d. unknown
Son b. m. d.

Eliza's was only one of two confirmed baptisms for any of the children of Margaret and Benjamin. On 25 June 1850, at the age of two she had been baptised by the Rev. John KAVANAGH at St Mary's Cathedral where her parents were confirmed on the record as Benjamin ANMORE and Margaret CLARKE. It is also considered very likely that the 1843 baptism record for the girl of the same name that appeared in the NSW BDM Index referred to her. This entry identified a baptism that occurred in 1843 but this is believed to be in error and should read 1848. This record cannot be easily read.76 Court records connected to Eliza's admission to Newcastle identified that she was fifteen. This age was confirmed in court by her mother but was later proved to be false77 and Eliza's had been illegally arrested under the terms of the Act.

Eliza and her sister Theresa, had been apprehended on warrant at eleven o'clock78 on the night of 29 August 1867, at their mother's residence in Ultimo.79 At this time Eliza told the constable that nothing could be done with her as she would say that she was over sixteen and that she would continue to live as she had done. Sergeant CONDICK stated that he had visited the house where Eliza lived and 'never saw a bed fit for a human being to lie upon.' He added that Margaret wasn’t a fit person to have charge of her children and that from about 1863, Eliza's older sister was:

taking this girl in town with other prostitutes and disorderly boys and I have met them at different hours as early as 1, 2 and three o'clock in the morning returning home. I have seen defendant at different times lying on the railway with men and boys. I have cautioned defendant's mother about this girl several times.

Court appearances four years earlier, before the passing of the Industrial School Act, show that Eliza had spent at least two short periods in gaol for prostitution. This would have put her age at this time as about fourteen but she may have been as young as ten or eleven. On 22 January 1863,80 Eliza and her older sister, named in the papers as Ann, were described as 'well known, common prostitutes' when they were sent to gaol for a week. On 23 February 1863,81 the two sisters again appeared in court for being 'on the town' and were again sent to Darlinghurst Gaol.82 They were released during the week ending 1 March 1863.83 There is almost no doubt that the Elizabeth MOORE who was imprisoned three times in Darlinghurst in 1864 and 1865 was this girl as on one occasion her name appeared beside Jane READ and on another she was recorded beneath the name of Mary BROADBENT. On these records she was identified as about 17 or 18.84 She possibly had also spent time in gaol for larceny but no confirmation has yet been found for any thefts and it is also believed that Eliza was the Catherine MOORE who had been arrested with Mary BROADBENT in October 1864.85

Although Eliza wasn’t the first girl sent to Newcastle, she was the first admission recorded in the Entrance Book and this was almost without doubt due to her age. The age pencilled beside her name was nineteen86 and all the other inmates admitted on 31 August 1867, were younger than her. This record suggested that she had followed through with her threat made in court to lie to the authorities – although subsequent petitions from Margaret proved that this age was correct and even though she and her mother had lied in court. Eliza had been illegally admitted to Newcastle under the terms of the Act. In court Eliza's mother, Margaret, declared that Eliza was fifteen, stating that she would be sixteen early in the next year. While it is unknown exactly why Eliza and her mother engaged in this deception, it is considered very likely that while they would have known that an arrest would probably mean imprisonment, neither would have realized that a charge under the Industrial School Act and an admission to Newcastle would have ,eant imprisonment for at least a year.87 Whatever the accuracy of the family's statements, the constables' declarations indicated that the police did attempt to save Eliza from a life of prostitution, as each officer consistently stated that she was younger than her sister88 and all declared that they believed she was under sixteen. When Mary Ann, as Anne, and Eliza had appeared in court four years earlier,89 Eliza was identified as the younger sister and it was reported that she was about thirteen. Eliza's age was recorded as fifteen on the list compiled by the constables on 31 July 1867,90 where she was described as a Protestant of robust health and a prostitute with one conviction. Margaret's petitions91 stated that Eliza was actually nineteen and her baptism had occurred as Elizabeth HANMORE. The correspondence included an extract from the St Mary’s Register indicating that Eliza had been baptised on 25 June 1850, as a two year old.92 There is little doubt that this record refers to Eliza as the admissions to the Roman Catholic Orphan School verified that there was only one girl in this family born in about 1848.

The Entrance Book also identified that Eliza was a Protestant who could 'read writing.' Her enrolment particulars differed from the information outlined in Margaret’s petitions because Eliza had been baptized as a Catholic. The copy of the details written in the Entrance Book concerning Eliza's academic achievements recorded by KING93 was more specific and documented that Eliza's reading attainment was 'sequel No. 2.' Eliza's medical assessment94 by Dr HARRIS indicated that she was not a virgin.

After about a month in the school, shortly after eleven o'clock on the night of Tuesday, 1 October 1867, Eliza made the first escape from Newcastle in company with Julia CUNNINGHAM.95 The pair climbed through one of the back windows and lowered themselves to the ground by descending the down water piping. Their escape was reported to the house matron, Mrs. RICE. A futile search was made and eventually the police were notified and finally they apprehended the pair some distance from the school. After their recapture96 it was reported to the Colonial Secretary by the Newcastle Police Magistrate, Helenus SCOTT, that the girls had been placed in the Newcastle lock-up as there were no cells provided at the school. SCOTT and Staff Sergeant MYERS requested permission to give up possession of two cells in the lock-up or alternatively, place the girls in the cells in the guard house at the military barracks instead. The government approved their detention in the lock-up. Eliza and Julia were finally brought before the Newcastle Bench, were reprimanded and returned to the school.

Although Eliza’s younger sister, Theresa, was named on SELWYN’s list of Protestant students enrolled in the school in June 1868, Eliza wasn't recorded as she had been released on the authority of the Colonial Secretary on 16 November 1867, into the care of her mother who had successfully proved that she had been illegally admitted.97 Eliza's life on the streets of Sydney is still being traced but nothing can be confirmed for her until 1901.

As Elizabeth, Eliza was the informant when her mother died on 9 April 1901. She identified that her married name was Elizabeth HARPER and that she lived at 2 Upton Street. Sand's Street Index identified that the man living in 2 Upton Street four years after Margaret's death was John Harper98 and it is possible that this man was Eliza's 'husband'. The City of Sydney Archives identified that the lessee of 2 Upton Street in 1901 was a James VAN or VON DEAN and he had been the tenant since 1896. Sand's Directory suggested that the addresses 2 Upton Street and 2 East Street could be synonymous and a map of the area in 1903 shows that Upton Street was entered from Macquarie Street and East Street was entered from Hunt Street and these two narrow streets met at one corner.99 Neither street now exists. The 1901 census did identify that the resident of 2 Upton Street was John HARPER and that there were three males and three females living in the house. Many of his neighbours were of Chinese extraction so the area was likely to be poor.100 The census was taken on the night of the 31 March 1901 so two of these women were Elizabeth and her mother. Upton Street was in the area near the Belmore Markets at the southern end of Macquarie Street close to the Devonshire Street Cemetery, now the site of Central Station.

No marriage has been identified for John HARPER and anyone named Elizabeth or Eliza and no births can be confirmed for this couple. It is also likely that the couple may have moved from Upton Street101 by before 1906102 although in 1907 John Harper was still recorded as the person renting the property. It is possible that this man had moved to the address of 48 Little Riley Street in 1910103 which may have been a boarding house rented by him.104 They had probably left this address by 1920.105

Where has She Gone?

Eliza may have been the woman admitted as Betsy MOORE in 1865. It is almost certain that the Eliza Ann MOORE who was admitted to Darlinghurst for four days on 14 June 1879, for drunkenness was this girl. Only the Darlinghurst admission remains and the court case has not been located as drunks were only rarely identified by name in the newspapers.

Eliza may be the woman of this name appearing in the Sydney courts after her release but the surname the Newcastle admission used was likely to have varied and cannot be confirmed. It is also unknown whether she used the given name Eliza or Elizabeth. There are no references found to any use of HANMORE. It is thought that the appearances in August 1869,106 and November 1877,107 may refer to her. Because there are inconsistencies with the religion of the HANMORE sisters, it my be that Eliza was the woman who entered Darlinghurst Gaol in 1870108 even though she was recorded as Catholic who was born in about 1847. The court case that sent her there hasn’t yet been confirmed.

Margaret referred to her married daughter in a petition in August 1871 but it is unknown whether she was referring to Mary or Eliza.

Because Margaret DEARING had been buried in a Catholic plot in Rookwood, it may be that Eliza was also buried with her mother but a search of Rookwood records has not identified anyone else sharing Margaret's grave.

No confirmation of any births or a marriage using any combination of given and surname known to be used by Eliza has yet been verified to 1900.

Eliza was not the nineteen-year-old Eliza MOORE who entered the Benevolent Asylum109 in December 1874 to deliver the illegitimate child, Eliza Helena MOORE, who was born on 16 January 1875. Eliza, the mother, 'left' the asylum a week after the birth but a letter in the CSIL indicated that this was the date that this Eliza died, as her father James sought permission to bury his nineteen-year-old daughter in his plot in the Camperdown Cemetery on 25 January.110 Eliza Helena MOORE didn’t leave the Benevolent Asylum until November 1875. This date probably recorded her death as it was also registered on the NSW BDM Index that year.

Eliza was not the 67-year-old Eliza HARPER who died in Wallerawang in 1902111 whose parents were Benjamin and Ann112 as this woman was too old by at least ten years and whose daughter Gertrude113 had been born in 1865114 in Bathurst.

Another Eliza MOORE who was aged about 55, arrived in Sydney from Goulburn and began to appear in court for prostitution and theft which makes tracking the Newcastle girl difficult. Only gaol records will distinguish between the two women and this is very difficult as the family were so inconsistent in their statements and Darlinghurst records for this time are so poor. This woman may very well be the Eliza MOORE who was intemperate and who died from taking poison in August 1880 as she was identified on the NSW BDM Index as 53 years-old.115

The woman who married William H. CRAGG in 1870 is unlikely as online trees indicated that she had been born in England in 1851 and died in 1938.116 Eliza didn’t marry the MILLANE man as searches of online records identify that this woman's father was James.

It is very probably coincidence that the Margaret E. HANMORE who was born and died in Bourke in 1883/4 and whose mother is recorded as Jane is connected to this family as this couple probably married in Queensland in 1881.

Theresa Ann HANMORE

Name Variations Teresa ENMORE, HANMOORE, Ann117 HANMORE alias MOORE
Husband Thomas TAYLOR b. m. 1876118 d. 1884119
Son Benjamin HANMORE b. 1875120 m. 1901121 Mary Ellen BROWN d. 1946122
Daughter Maud Sarah TAYLOR b. 1879123 m. d.
Son Joseph Alexander124 TAYLOR b. 1884125 m. 1913126 Elizabeth Susan MUTCH d. 1974127
Daughter Ruth TAYLOR128 b.c. 1885 m. Jimmy WALKER d. unknown

Theresa was apprehended the same day as her sister129 Eliza, and was sent with her to Newcastle. The Empire reported that she was seven.130 When she was admitted to the school on 31 August 1867, she was recorded as nine-year-old Theresa MOORE. A birth registration for Theresa hasn’t been found under any surname used by Margaret and it is thought that none exists. There is little doubt, but no written record confirmed it, that Theresa was born in Sydney as her parents were not thought to have resided anywhere but this locality. The Entrance Book indicated that her level of education was 'First book on slate.' She was listed as a Protestant131 and appeared on SELWYN's list of Protestant girls compiled in June 1868.132 Theresa's medical assessment by Dr HARRIS showed that she was a virgin.133

While attempts were made by Theresa's mother to have her released from the school at the same time as her sister, Eliza, these attempts were unsuccessful – almost certainly due to her youth – and she had been arrested legally under the Act. It is considered very likely that the government believed that Theresa's retention at the school would have been in her best interests and it must be considered that her admission did give her an advantage in that she gained an opportunity to earn money legitimately. On 16 December 1869, Margaret requested permission to visit Theresa and the notation by the Colonial Secretary concerning this request read that she 'may be allowed if Superintendent has no objection.'134 A second request by Margaret to visit Theresa was made on 12 April 1871135 shortly before the school transferred to Cockatoo Island.

In May 1871, shortly after Margaret's second visit, Theresa transferred with the school to Biloela. She was recorded on the list of girls eligible for service compiled by LUCAS on 23 June 1871.136 Permission to apprentice Theresa together with a character check of her future mistress, Mrs Elizabeth WHARTON, were undertaken around 23 August 1871. Theresa's initial wage was two shillings a week but this wage was to increase by one shilling a week each year for the five years of the apprenticeship.137 This apprenticeship took some time to commence and Theresa was still on Biloela on 19 September 1871 when she was mentioned by LUCAS in his report.138 Theresa had been placed in No. 3 Dormitory on a bread and water diet for fourteen days for 'bathing in the river'139 with three other girls who were similarly punished.140 On 20 August, her mother again requested permission to have Theresa released to her. The letter was probably written on her behalf and was signed 'Ann Moore.' She stated:

I should be very thankful to have my daughter Theresa Ann Moore home from Cockatoo as soon as arrangements of the establishment will allow, I have a married son & daughter who are both able to keep her & are indeed anxious to have her with them besides which I have a brother who has tried[?] for five years with Thomas[?] Esq., Queensland, who if I wish will remove her away from Sydney.
I am sir
Yours Obediently
Ann Moore

No rejection of this petition was necessary as on 28 September, LUCAS wrote that Theresa had been 'discharged from this Institution on the 27th Instant.'141 Theresa was thirteen when she began her apprenticeship with Elizabeth WHARTON of Hillgrove, Scone.142 Four years later, on 17 June 1875, Theresa became the mother of an illegitimate son, Benjamin.143 He was baptized in St Luke’s Church of England, Scone, on 17 July, by Rev. J. SHAW. Theresa was recorded in the HVPRI as Ann HANMOORE or MOORE from Biloela Industrial School, but the NSW BDM Index recorded her as Theresa. Benjamin’s father was almost certainly Theresa’s future husband Thomas, who was erroneously recorded with her surname HANMOORE or MOORE144 was from Segenhoe. Theresa HANMORE of Corrigan’s Creek married Thomas TAYLOR, a farmer of Brushy Hill, on 26 August 1876, in the house of Mr WHARTON in Gundy. William and Ann WHARTON were the witnesses. The particulars were entered in the register of St Luke’s Church of England, Scone.145 Thomas had been born in Singleton but Theresa’s birthplace was recorded only as NSW. The HVPRI will need to be checked to see whetehr the register actually identified Thomas TAYLOR's parents as there is some uncertainty about his identity. Thomas and Theresa had at least four children but only registrations for Benjamin and two others, Maud Sarah and Joseph, have been identified. These later births were registered in Sydney. Descendants of Benjamin have identified two further children, Ruth and Alexander, whose birth registrations have not been identified.

Family Search researchers have identified that Thomas died in Newcastle in 1884. There are too many unanswered questions to accurately make this assumption without citing the actual registrations involved. The death registration on the NSW BDM Index146 identified only that Thomas' father was Samuel. What evidence is there that Thomas' father was Samuel?The Scone church record for the marriage of the couple in 1876 does not identify the parents of either Thomas or Theresa.147 As there is nothing on the church record it is considered unlikely that this information is recorded on the registration. Samuel TAYLOR and Rebecca GENT were living in the Singleton area at the time but their son, identified on Family Search as Thomas Sidney TAYLOR, seems likely to still be alive after 1884. There is a death in Sydney in May 1934 of a Thomas TAYLOR whose parents match those attributed to Thomas Sidney TAYLOR. He was 80 years-of-age. That makes puts his year of birth about 1854. He had formerly lived in Glen Innes and had a son named Francis L. TAYLOR.148 The NSW BDM Index shows that Francis L. TAYLOR had been born in Gunnedah in 1888 to Thomas S. TAYLOR and his wife Emily R. TAYLOR.149 No marriage has been identified for Thomas S. TAYLOR to anyone named Emily. The closest match is the 1885 marriage in Tamworth of John Thomas TAYLOR and Emily SMITH.150 These are enough warning signs to question firstly, whether the 1884 death attributed to Thomas is correct; secondly whether the correct ancestry for the man who married Theresa HANMORE been identified, as the 1934 death seems to more close match the son of Samuel TAYLOR and Rebecca GENT who were living in the Singleton area at the time Thomas and Theresa married and thirdly, if the ancestry attributed to Thomas is correct, did the marriage to Theresa fail and he go on to bigamously marry Emily SMITH at John Thomas TAYLOR as all these events occurred or can be linked to the upper Hunter Valley or the New England area of NSW?

After his mother's marriage, Benjamin HANMORE assumed his father's surname of TAYLOR. In 1903 Benjamin married Mary Ellen BROWN,151 the daughter of Robert Wilkinson BROWN and Jessie LOWE. TAYLOR descendants have confirmed that Benjamin died in Sydney shortly after the death of his mother and his death identified that his parents were William and Theresa Ann. His wife, Mary, and his brother, Alexander,152 were named on his Funeral Notice.153

Alexander TAYLOR and his wife, Elizabeth, had two sons, Alan and Donald.154 Donald's death in 1968155 identified that his father's full name was Alexander Donald TAYLOR and when Alexander Donald TAYLOR died at the age of 90 in 1874 no parents were recorded on the NSW BDM Index.156 It is considered very likely that because Theresa's son, Alexander, died at the age of 90 in 1974, that he was the boy registered as Joseph TAYLOR in 1884, whose given name had subsequently been changed. If this is correct it may be that the birth of the child known as Ruth may have been registered as Maud Sarah.

Theresa, Benjamin and Alexander TAYLOR, were residents of Collins Street, Botany, in 1930, 1931 and 1933. Also living at the same address was Benjamin's wife, Mary Ellen, and Alexander's wife, Elizabeth, who was a milliner.157 By 1934 Theresa was living in Braeside, Collins Street; Benjamin and Mary Ellen were living in Benellen, Collins Street; and Alexander and Elizabeth Susan were still at the Collins Street address. Theresa Ann TAYLOR died in Botany on 29 June 1946, at the age of eighty-nine.158 Her death has been verified by her descendants and her death registration provided further details of her life but didn't identify the names of her parents and has not been cited. No funeral notice has yet been found for her.

Updated November 2018

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